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Energy Efficiency in Residential Buildings in Mozambique - Measurements and Simulations

Auziane, Gabriel LU (2015)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in English

Energy savings and climate change mitigation have been discussed in the world since the oil crisis in the 1970s and the building sector has been seen as one of the largest contributors to global warming effects in the world. Energy efficiency in buildings is a critical issue to be addressed in order to reduce electricity energy used in buildings and is one of the main tasks that is developed within the program Advancing Sustainable Construction in Mozambique. The work done in this thesis contributes to better knowledge in the field of building energy performance through energy analysis, auditing, modelling, and simulations of energy use in buildings with a focus on the residential sector in... (More)
Popular Abstract in English

Energy savings and climate change mitigation have been discussed in the world since the oil crisis in the 1970s and the building sector has been seen as one of the largest contributors to global warming effects in the world. Energy efficiency in buildings is a critical issue to be addressed in order to reduce electricity energy used in buildings and is one of the main tasks that is developed within the program Advancing Sustainable Construction in Mozambique. The work done in this thesis contributes to better knowledge in the field of building energy performance through energy analysis, auditing, modelling, and simulations of energy use in buildings with a focus on the residential sector in Mozambique.

Research in the energy efficiency in buildings sector is an important issue, because it can generate knowledge and awareness among builders, architects and engineers about the benefits of using tools which predict the energy use in buildings during the design stage or when retrofitting.

It was found that there is a lack of suitable tools in Mozambique, for assessing building energy use during the design stage and at renewal. It was also found that the energy in residential buildings is used inefficiently. In order to find tools to cope with these problems, seven modelling and simulation tools were studied and among them one was selected as suitable to be used in Mozambique, considering factors as climate, building stock and education level.

Additionally, measurement equipment for measuring indoor temperature, humidity, and electricity data and outdoor climate such as direct and diffuse solar radiation, temperature and humidity, wind direction and wind speed was installed in the case study “3 de Fevereiro Residential” building. The measured indoor and outdoor climatic factors were necessary for gauging the predictions of the simulation tool.

From a literature review and the inspection done in the case study building, it was found that the existing appliances in residential buildings are old and energy inefficient. An analysis showed that using new and efficient technologies for air conditioning, appliances and for lighting could result in a reduction of electrical energy use by 24%.

It was concluded that the improvements mentioned above can be enhanced with the use of renewable energy such as solar panels. To test this, a photovoltaic system generating electricity from the sunlight was designed and installed in the “3 de Fevereiro building”. The system supplied the building with electricity for cooling and

lighting. This research system proved to work well and included the possibility to collect data via internet.

The use of renewable energy is vital in improvement of electrical energy used in urban and rural zones. The constraint for its use is related to the price which is unaffordable for the majority of the Mozambican population living in rural zones. Thus, loans and incentives from the government for households who need to use efficient appliances and solar panels is highly recommended. (Less)
Abstract
Mozambique, situated in south-east Africa, has sub-tropical and tropical climate and plenty of natural resources for energy production. The country is however poor, and only about 25% of the population has access to electricity from the grid. A very large

part of the energy used in the country is used in the residential sector, and there is a general lack of knowledge, regulations and tools concerning energy efficiency in buildings.

The aim of this work is to contribute to a framework of knowledge and tools that can improve the energy efficiency in buildings, which in turn can lead to better use of natural resources, better indoor comfort in residential buildings and better economy for the dwellers. The framework consists... (More)
Mozambique, situated in south-east Africa, has sub-tropical and tropical climate and plenty of natural resources for energy production. The country is however poor, and only about 25% of the population has access to electricity from the grid. A very large

part of the energy used in the country is used in the residential sector, and there is a general lack of knowledge, regulations and tools concerning energy efficiency in buildings.

The aim of this work is to contribute to a framework of knowledge and tools that can improve the energy efficiency in buildings, which in turn can lead to better use of natural resources, better indoor comfort in residential buildings and better economy for the dwellers. The framework consists of several parts, such as measurement equipment, an energy balance simulation tool and analysis of the potential of efficient appliances and PV-systems, as described in the following. It is believed that this knowledge and tools can be a resource for professionals in Mozambique, which will improve their possibilities to work for better energy efficiency in the residential sector.

A reference building, “3 de Fevereiro Residential”, in Maputo City was used in the project. This building is typical for the housing stock in Maputo City and can serve as a case study for studying energy improvement in buildings in Mozambique.

The use of electricity in the reference building was examined, and it was found that the equipment that use the largest part of the electrical energy was the cooling system, 26%, water heating, 23% and lighting, 15%. Old, inefficient appliances and traditional light bulbs were used in the house. The effect of changing to new, more efficient, appliances and using LED lamps was analysed and the evaluation showed that this could result in 24% decrease in electrical energy use.

Measurement equipment for monitoring outdoor and indoor climate was installed in the building. Outdoor climate variables measured included global and diffuse irradiance, temperature, wind speed and direction. Indoor temperature and relative humidity was measured. Measurements were performed for a continuous period of one year, and the equipment included a facility for collecting the data via internet.

Different theoretical and experimental techniques for analysing and evaluating energy used in buildings were examined in order to find a suitable tool for the climatic conditions and building types prevailing in Mozambique. DEROB-LTH was considered to be the most suitable tool among the evaluated ones. DEROB-LTH is a dynamic simulation tool with three-dimensional modelling of the building geometry for analysis of the effect of solar radiation as a key feature.

DEROB-LTH was validated by comparing results of indoor temperature from simulations with measured indoor temperatures for the reference building. Measured outdoor climate data was used as input data. The comparison of simulation results with ones from the measurement equipment presented good agreement, which indicates that the selected tool can be used in Mozambican climatic conditions in particular, and in subtropical and tropical countries in general.

An interesting way of decreasing electricity bought from the grid is the use of PVsystems. PV-systems could also be used where there is no grid, and as back-up for critical functions where the grid is unreliable like in Mozambique. To explore this possibility, a pilot PV-system was installed in the reference building. The system proved to work well, and its performance was monitored by measurement equipment. An evaluation of the life-cycle cost, however, showed that the electricity price when using the system would be about eight times higher than buying from the grid. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor Karlsson, Björn, Mälardalens högskola
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Energy, Building, Measurements, Simulations, DEROB-LTH, Mozambique, Subtropical and Tropical climates, Energy efficiency, PV system, Electrical energy savings.
pages
176 pages
publisher
Division of Building Science, Lund University
defense location
Lecture hall A:B, A-building, Sölvegatan 24, Lund University, Faculty of Engineering, LTH.
defense date
2015-06-12 10:15
external identifiers
  • other:TABK-1027
ISSN
1103-4467
ISBN
978-91-7623-159-3
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
ea5a8824-c9bb-4468-abbd-baec357e0c94 (old id 5367972)
date added to LUP
2015-05-18 12:18:13
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:48
@phdthesis{ea5a8824-c9bb-4468-abbd-baec357e0c94,
  abstract     = {Mozambique, situated in south-east Africa, has sub-tropical and tropical climate and plenty of natural resources for energy production. The country is however poor, and only about 25% of the population has access to electricity from the grid. A very large<br/><br>
part of the energy used in the country is used in the residential sector, and there is a general lack of knowledge, regulations and tools concerning energy efficiency in buildings.<br/><br>
The aim of this work is to contribute to a framework of knowledge and tools that can improve the energy efficiency in buildings, which in turn can lead to better use of natural resources, better indoor comfort in residential buildings and better economy for the dwellers. The framework consists of several parts, such as measurement equipment, an energy balance simulation tool and analysis of the potential of efficient appliances and PV-systems, as described in the following. It is believed that this knowledge and tools can be a resource for professionals in Mozambique, which will improve their possibilities to work for better energy efficiency in the residential sector.<br/><br>
A reference building, “3 de Fevereiro Residential”, in Maputo City was used in the project. This building is typical for the housing stock in Maputo City and can serve as a case study for studying energy improvement in buildings in Mozambique.<br/><br>
The use of electricity in the reference building was examined, and it was found that the equipment that use the largest part of the electrical energy was the cooling system, 26%, water heating, 23% and lighting, 15%. Old, inefficient appliances and traditional light bulbs were used in the house. The effect of changing to new, more efficient, appliances and using LED lamps was analysed and the evaluation showed that this could result in 24% decrease in electrical energy use.<br/><br>
Measurement equipment for monitoring outdoor and indoor climate was installed in the building. Outdoor climate variables measured included global and diffuse irradiance, temperature, wind speed and direction. Indoor temperature and relative humidity was measured. Measurements were performed for a continuous period of one year, and the equipment included a facility for collecting the data via internet.<br/><br>
Different theoretical and experimental techniques for analysing and evaluating energy used in buildings were examined in order to find a suitable tool for the climatic conditions and building types prevailing in Mozambique. DEROB-LTH was considered to be the most suitable tool among the evaluated ones. DEROB-LTH is a dynamic simulation tool with three-dimensional modelling of the building geometry for analysis of the effect of solar radiation as a key feature.<br/><br>
DEROB-LTH was validated by comparing results of indoor temperature from simulations with measured indoor temperatures for the reference building. Measured outdoor climate data was used as input data. The comparison of simulation results with ones from the measurement equipment presented good agreement, which indicates that the selected tool can be used in Mozambican climatic conditions in particular, and in subtropical and tropical countries in general.<br/><br>
An interesting way of decreasing electricity bought from the grid is the use of PVsystems. PV-systems could also be used where there is no grid, and as back-up for critical functions where the grid is unreliable like in Mozambique. To explore this possibility, a pilot PV-system was installed in the reference building. The system proved to work well, and its performance was monitored by measurement equipment. An evaluation of the life-cycle cost, however, showed that the electricity price when using the system would be about eight times higher than buying from the grid.},
  author       = {Auziane, Gabriel},
  isbn         = {978-91-7623-159-3},
  issn         = {1103-4467},
  keyword      = {Energy,Building,Measurements,Simulations,DEROB-LTH,Mozambique,Subtropical and Tropical climates,Energy efficiency,PV system,Electrical energy savings.},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {176},
  publisher    = {Division of Building Science, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Energy Efficiency in Residential Buildings in Mozambique - Measurements and Simulations},
  year         = {2015},
}