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Drum sound from floor coverings - objective and subjective assessment

Johansson, Ann-Charlotte LU (2005)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Trumljud är det ljud som hörs i ett rum då ett objekt, till exempel en fot, träffar golvytan i samma rum. Ökande användning av tunna och hårda golvbeläggningar, såsom parkett och laminatgolv, kan leda till ljudstarka och skarpa ljud, vilket har ökat intresset av trumljud. En prediktionsmodell för den subjektiva responsen av trumljud vid en parvis jämförelse har tagits fram. Skillnaden mellan två stimulis 10-percentil loudness har visat sig kunna förutsäga den subjektiva uppfattningen av trumljudens störningsgrad. En skillnad av cirka 8 % i 10-percentil loudness resulterade i att 50 procent av försökspersonerna upplevde en skillnad mellan trumljuden.



En jämförelse mellan... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Trumljud är det ljud som hörs i ett rum då ett objekt, till exempel en fot, träffar golvytan i samma rum. Ökande användning av tunna och hårda golvbeläggningar, såsom parkett och laminatgolv, kan leda till ljudstarka och skarpa ljud, vilket har ökat intresset av trumljud. En prediktionsmodell för den subjektiva responsen av trumljud vid en parvis jämförelse har tagits fram. Skillnaden mellan två stimulis 10-percentil loudness har visat sig kunna förutsäga den subjektiva uppfattningen av trumljudens störningsgrad. En skillnad av cirka 8 % i 10-percentil loudness resulterade i att 50 procent av försökspersonerna upplevde en skillnad mellan trumljuden.



En jämförelse mellan existerande tillvägagångssätt för att analysera resultatet från en parvis jämförelse presenteras. Det är huvudsakligen modellerna av Thurstone-Mosteller och Bradley-Terry och utvidgningar av dessa för att tillåta försökspersonerna att uppge stimuli som lika som framställs. Procedurer för att pröva om svaren är statistiskt signifikant olika presenteras. Fördelar och nackdelar med modellerna diskuteras. Modellerna är illustrerade med exempel från tester med trumljud.



En branschnorm har etablerats för att mäta trumljud för laminatgolv. Normen har som mål att ge resultat som svarar mot den subjektiva upplevelsen av trumljudens ljudstyrka och använder den standardiserade (ISO) hammarapparaten som ljudkälla. En round robin har genomförts och rapporteras tillsammans med resultaten från lyssningstester där samma golv ingick. Generella aspekter av utvärderingsmått, hammarapparaten, testmiljö etc. som bör beaktas när trumljudsmätningar skall genomföras diskuteras. Måttet loudness enligt ISO 532B rekommenderas då det bäst överrensstämmer med den subjektiva bedömningen. Hammarapparaten kan användas då mätningar på hårda golv ska utföras, men bör användas med försiktighet när trumljud med låga nivåer ska utföras då buller från hammarapparatens mekanik kan påverka mätningen. (Less)
Abstract
Drum sound is the sound produced when an object, such as a foot, hits the flooring in the room in which the receiving ear is located. Drum sound has attracted interest in recent years, particularly due to an increased use of thin floating floor constructions, such as veneer or laminate flooring, which can produce loud and sharp walking sound. A prediction model of the subjective response, in a paired comparison test, to drum sound based on differences in objective measurements is developed. The difference in 10-percentile loudness, N10, between two stimuli is shown to predict the subjective perceived disturbance better than, for example, A-weighted sound pressure level. A difference of about 8% in N10 resulted in 50% of the assessors... (More)
Drum sound is the sound produced when an object, such as a foot, hits the flooring in the room in which the receiving ear is located. Drum sound has attracted interest in recent years, particularly due to an increased use of thin floating floor constructions, such as veneer or laminate flooring, which can produce loud and sharp walking sound. A prediction model of the subjective response, in a paired comparison test, to drum sound based on differences in objective measurements is developed. The difference in 10-percentile loudness, N10, between two stimuli is shown to predict the subjective perceived disturbance better than, for example, A-weighted sound pressure level. A difference of about 8% in N10 resulted in 50% of the assessors noticing a difference.



A comparison of different existing approaches to analysing the result from a paired comparison test is made. The main focus is set on the basic models by Thurstone-Mosteller and Bradley-Terry and extensions of these concerning ties. Procedures for testing if the responses and calculated ranking values are statistically different are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed. These methods are illustrated with examples from tests on drum sound from floor coverings.



A branch norm has been established for measuring drum sound on laminate floor coverings. The norm evaluates the subjective perception of the drum sound's loudness using the ISO tapping machine. A round-robin study of the norm is reported along with the results of a paired comparison listening test using the same floor coverings. General aspects of evaluation measures, tapping machines, test environments, etc., that need to be considered when measuring drum sound on various floor coverings are discussed. It is concluded that loudness as measured according to ISO 532B correlates the best with the subjective perception of the drum sound's loudness. The tapping machine can be used to excite hard floor coverings to produce the drum sound, but should be used with caution in studying low-level drum sounds due to the tapping machine's inherent mechanical noise. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor Rindel, Jens Holger, Ørsted, DTU, Lyngby, Danmark
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
vakuumteknik, vibrationer, akustik, hydraulik, Maskinteknik, vacuum technology, vibration and acoustic engineering, hydraulics, acoustic standard, Mechanical engineering, tapping machine, veneer flooring, parquet flooring, binaural recording, foot impact, loudness, sound quality, listening test, paired comparisons, walking sound, drum sound, building acoustics, psychoacoustics, laminate flooring
pages
130 pages
publisher
Engineering Acoustics, LTH, Lund University
defense location
Room V:A, V-building, Lund Institute of Technology, John Ericssons väg 1, Lund
defense date
2005-06-15 13:15
ISSN
0281-8477
ISBN
91-628-6531-5
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
a891ed65-caf2-4096-aa2f-0139b4ea0c72 (old id 545118)
date added to LUP
2007-09-10 10:48:13
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:52
@phdthesis{a891ed65-caf2-4096-aa2f-0139b4ea0c72,
  abstract     = {Drum sound is the sound produced when an object, such as a foot, hits the flooring in the room in which the receiving ear is located. Drum sound has attracted interest in recent years, particularly due to an increased use of thin floating floor constructions, such as veneer or laminate flooring, which can produce loud and sharp walking sound. A prediction model of the subjective response, in a paired comparison test, to drum sound based on differences in objective measurements is developed. The difference in 10-percentile loudness, N10, between two stimuli is shown to predict the subjective perceived disturbance better than, for example, A-weighted sound pressure level. A difference of about 8% in N10 resulted in 50% of the assessors noticing a difference.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
A comparison of different existing approaches to analysing the result from a paired comparison test is made. The main focus is set on the basic models by Thurstone-Mosteller and Bradley-Terry and extensions of these concerning ties. Procedures for testing if the responses and calculated ranking values are statistically different are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed. These methods are illustrated with examples from tests on drum sound from floor coverings.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
A branch norm has been established for measuring drum sound on laminate floor coverings. The norm evaluates the subjective perception of the drum sound's loudness using the ISO tapping machine. A round-robin study of the norm is reported along with the results of a paired comparison listening test using the same floor coverings. General aspects of evaluation measures, tapping machines, test environments, etc., that need to be considered when measuring drum sound on various floor coverings are discussed. It is concluded that loudness as measured according to ISO 532B correlates the best with the subjective perception of the drum sound's loudness. The tapping machine can be used to excite hard floor coverings to produce the drum sound, but should be used with caution in studying low-level drum sounds due to the tapping machine's inherent mechanical noise.},
  author       = {Johansson, Ann-Charlotte},
  isbn         = {91-628-6531-5},
  issn         = {0281-8477},
  keyword      = {vakuumteknik,vibrationer,akustik,hydraulik,Maskinteknik,vacuum technology,vibration and acoustic engineering,hydraulics,acoustic standard,Mechanical engineering,tapping machine,veneer flooring,parquet flooring,binaural recording,foot impact,loudness,sound quality,listening test,paired comparisons,walking sound,drum sound,building acoustics,psychoacoustics,laminate flooring},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {130},
  publisher    = {Engineering Acoustics, LTH, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Drum sound from floor coverings - objective and subjective assessment},
  year         = {2005},
}