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The ATP Receptors P2X7 and P2X4 Modulate High Glucose and Palmitate-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Endothelial Cells.

Sathanoori, Ramasri LU ; Swärd, Karl LU ; Olde, Björn LU and Erlinge, David LU (2015) In PLoS ONE 10(5).
Abstract
Endothelial cells lining the blood vessels are principal players in vascular inflammatory responses. Dysregulation of endothelial cell function caused by hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia often result in impaired vasoregulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered barrier function. Various stressors including high glucose stimulate the release of nucleotides thus initiating signaling via purinergic receptors. However, purinergic modulation of inflammatory responses in endothelial cells caused by high glucose and palmitate remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether the effect of high glucose and palmitate is mediated by P2X7 and P2X4 and if they play a role in endothelial cell dysfunction.... (More)
Endothelial cells lining the blood vessels are principal players in vascular inflammatory responses. Dysregulation of endothelial cell function caused by hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia often result in impaired vasoregulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered barrier function. Various stressors including high glucose stimulate the release of nucleotides thus initiating signaling via purinergic receptors. However, purinergic modulation of inflammatory responses in endothelial cells caused by high glucose and palmitate remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether the effect of high glucose and palmitate is mediated by P2X7 and P2X4 and if they play a role in endothelial cell dysfunction. Transcript and protein levels of inflammatory genes as well as reactive oxygen species production, endothelial-leukocyte adhesion, and cell permeability were investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to high glucose and palmitate. We report high glucose and palmitate to increase levels of extracellular ATP, expression of P2X7 and P2X4, and inflammatory markers. Both P2X7 and P2X4 antagonists inhibited high glucose and palmitate-induced interleukin-6 levels with the former having a significant effect on interleukin-8 and cyclooxygenase-2. The effect of the antagonists was confirmed with siRNA knockdown of the receptors. In addition, P2X7 mediated both high glucose and palmitate-induced increase in reactive oxygen species levels and decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Blocking P2X7 inhibited high glucose and palmitate-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 as well as leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Interestingly, high glucose and palmitate enhanced endothelial cell permeability that was dependent on both P2X7 and P2X4. Furthermore, antagonizing the P2X7 inhibited high glucose and palmitate-mediated activation of p38-mitogen activated protein kinase. These findings support a novel role for P2X7 and P2X4 coupled to induction of inflammatory molecules in modulating high glucose and palmitate-induced endothelial cell activation and dysfunction. (Less)
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author
organization
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Contribution to journal
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published
subject
in
PLoS ONE
volume
10
issue
5
publisher
Public Library of Science
external identifiers
  • pmid:25938443
  • wos:000353943000045
  • scopus:84929340867
ISSN
1932-6203
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0125111
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
959622da-0865-463b-b3c7-23e923733e92 (old id 5458313)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25938443?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2015-06-02 14:50:38
date last changed
2017-06-25 04:01:38
@article{959622da-0865-463b-b3c7-23e923733e92,
  abstract     = {Endothelial cells lining the blood vessels are principal players in vascular inflammatory responses. Dysregulation of endothelial cell function caused by hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia often result in impaired vasoregulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered barrier function. Various stressors including high glucose stimulate the release of nucleotides thus initiating signaling via purinergic receptors. However, purinergic modulation of inflammatory responses in endothelial cells caused by high glucose and palmitate remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether the effect of high glucose and palmitate is mediated by P2X7 and P2X4 and if they play a role in endothelial cell dysfunction. Transcript and protein levels of inflammatory genes as well as reactive oxygen species production, endothelial-leukocyte adhesion, and cell permeability were investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to high glucose and palmitate. We report high glucose and palmitate to increase levels of extracellular ATP, expression of P2X7 and P2X4, and inflammatory markers. Both P2X7 and P2X4 antagonists inhibited high glucose and palmitate-induced interleukin-6 levels with the former having a significant effect on interleukin-8 and cyclooxygenase-2. The effect of the antagonists was confirmed with siRNA knockdown of the receptors. In addition, P2X7 mediated both high glucose and palmitate-induced increase in reactive oxygen species levels and decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Blocking P2X7 inhibited high glucose and palmitate-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 as well as leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Interestingly, high glucose and palmitate enhanced endothelial cell permeability that was dependent on both P2X7 and P2X4. Furthermore, antagonizing the P2X7 inhibited high glucose and palmitate-mediated activation of p38-mitogen activated protein kinase. These findings support a novel role for P2X7 and P2X4 coupled to induction of inflammatory molecules in modulating high glucose and palmitate-induced endothelial cell activation and dysfunction.},
  articleno    = {e0125111},
  author       = {Sathanoori, Ramasri and Swärd, Karl and Olde, Björn and Erlinge, David},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  publisher    = {Public Library of Science},
  series       = {PLoS ONE},
  title        = {The ATP Receptors P2X7 and P2X4 Modulate High Glucose and Palmitate-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Endothelial Cells.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125111},
  volume       = {10},
  year         = {2015},
}