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The Change from Feature Focus to Customer Focus in Packaging Development

Olsson, Annika LU (2006)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Skogs- och pappersindustrin är några av Sveriges mest betydande industrier. Mycket av det producerade pappret används till förpackningar och papper har under lång tid varit det dominerande materialet i förpackningsindustrin; en annan viktig industri i Sverige. På senare år har dock pappersindustrin utsatts för hård konkurrens från plastindustrin när det gäller material till förpackningar. Eftersom pappersindustrin traditionellt varit inriktad på effektivisering av en kapitalintensiv produktion, har produktutvecklingen inom industrin antagit ett produktionstekniskt och produktorienterat perspektiv. Den nya konkurrenssituationen innebär dock att pappersindustrin måste möta de nya marknadskraven och... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Skogs- och pappersindustrin är några av Sveriges mest betydande industrier. Mycket av det producerade pappret används till förpackningar och papper har under lång tid varit det dominerande materialet i förpackningsindustrin; en annan viktig industri i Sverige. På senare år har dock pappersindustrin utsatts för hård konkurrens från plastindustrin när det gäller material till förpackningar. Eftersom pappersindustrin traditionellt varit inriktad på effektivisering av en kapitalintensiv produktion, har produktutvecklingen inom industrin antagit ett produktionstekniskt och produktorienterat perspektiv. Den nya konkurrenssituationen innebär dock att pappersindustrin måste möta de nya marknadskraven och utveckla förpackningslösningar som tillgodoser kundernas behov.



Denna avhandling bygger därför på tesen att pappers- och förpackningsindustrin behöver göra ett perspektivbyte, från ett produktorienterat perspektiv till ett kundorienterat perspektiv i utvecklingen av förpackningslösningar. Syftet med avhandlingen har varit att studera och öka förståelsen för innebörden av ett sådant perspektivbyte inom förpackningsutveckling avseende såväl produkter som tjänster. Avhandlingens inledande studie i förpackningsindustrin visar på ett produktorienterat synsätt. Därför har fortsatta studier inom förpackningsindustrin gjorts för att förstå vilka krav som ställs i ett perspektivbyte. Ett annat fallföretag inom pappers- och förpackningsindustrin har valts för att komplettera studierna. Detta för att djupare kunna analysera konsekvenserna av ett perspektivbyte mot kundorientering i produktutvecklingen.



Aktionsforskning i servicebranschen utgör också en del av denna avhandling. Inom servicebranschen är kunden involverad och medverkar i leverantörens process då tjänster köps och konsumeras. Mötet med kunden i dessa ögonblick har föranlett ett kundorienterat perspektiv i utveckling av varor och tjänster i serviceindustrin. Denna kundorientering har varit intressant att studera i syftet att överföra kunskap till förpackningsindustrin om den närmare innebörden av kundorientering samt även kunskap om sättet att arbeta med produkt- och tjänsteutveckling utifrån ett kundperspektiv. Ett antal studier inom serviceindustrin har därför använts som grund för analyserna rörande förpackningsindustrin. Denna avhandling utgörs därför av fallstudier både i servicebranschen och i pappers- och förpackningsindustrin.



Baserat på tesen att förpackningsindustrin behöver skifta perspektiv i sin produktutveckling, föreslås förpackningsindustrin hämta kunskap från serviceindustrin och applicera denna i den egna industrin. Ett exempel på sådan överförd kunskap är konceptet att ?bunta? produkter och tjänster till erbjudande för kunden. Ett sådant erbjudande består av kärnprodukten, dvs. förpackningen, med tillhörande service som ökar värdet på det totala erbjudandet till kunden. Med tesen om perspektivbyte föreslås också ett systemsynsätt, där förpackningsproducenten ser sig själva som del av kundens och ytterst konsumentens system. Genom ökad förståelse för kunden i dess system, kan förpackningsproducenten integrera produkter med tjänster i erbjudanden för ökat värde, inte enbart för den omedelbara kunden, utan också för kundens kund. En sådan värdeökning kan då leda till erbjudanden som blir mer attraktiva på marknaden och därmed bidrar till ökad vinst för både producent och kunder.



Själva perspektivbytet utgör en kunskap. En annan kunskap är den om hur perspektivbytet förverkligas. I den senare kommer ofrånkomligen individens roll in, eftersom individen har stor betydelse för genomförandet av ett perspektivbyte. Relationer mellan anställda i förpackningsföretaget och individer i kundsystemet är till exempel av betydelse eftersom det ökar förståelsen för kundens behov. Men även individens lärande har stor betydelse för att ett perspektivbyte skall kunna ske. Ett perspektivbyte kräver ett lärande hos individen. I detta lärande ingår en förändring i synsätt hos individen, och en förståelse för vad kundvärde och kundorientering innebär. Eftersom individer är knutna till system, såsom organisatoriska system, blir det viktigt att systemet tillåter individen att ifrågasätta och lära för att en förändring skall ske. Ett praktiskt bidrag i denna forskning, är den metodutveckling för lärande och synsättsförändring hos individen, som tagits fram i den aktionsorienterade forskning som utförts i serviceindustrin.



För att kunna utveckla fortsatt kunskap om förändringen av perspektiv föreslås aktionsforskning som metodik. Anledningen är att aktionsforskning integrerar individer i forskningsprocessen och ett direkt personligt utbyte sker i alla faser såsom handling, reflektion och lärande. Aktionsforskning ger också en djupare tillgång och en direkt kontakt till verkliga fallstudieorganisationer. (Less)
Abstract
The paper and packaging industry is a major and important industry in Sweden. The industry is capital intensive with a large investment base and long cycles for renewal and replenishment of machine platforms and other production equipment. Thus, the paper/packaging industry traditionally has a technical product oriented view and product development in the industry is partly made and understood in isolation from customer and consumer knowledge. In the packaging industry, paper material is the dominant but has lately experienced increased competition from plastics. In this prevailing situation, it has been hard to identify competitive advantages of paper material and packaging producers and converters have not been able to meet the changed... (More)
The paper and packaging industry is a major and important industry in Sweden. The industry is capital intensive with a large investment base and long cycles for renewal and replenishment of machine platforms and other production equipment. Thus, the paper/packaging industry traditionally has a technical product oriented view and product development in the industry is partly made and understood in isolation from customer and consumer knowledge. In the packaging industry, paper material is the dominant but has lately experienced increased competition from plastics. In this prevailing situation, it has been hard to identify competitive advantages of paper material and packaging producers and converters have not been able to meet the changed market and customer requirements. The paper industry therefore needs to provide packaging materials and packaging solutions that provide competitive advantage and meet the needs and expectations of customers and consumers. Based on this background, the basic postulate proposed for investigation in this research is the need to turn toward a customer perspective, with increased customer understanding, in the development of packages and paper packaging material.



The purpose of this research is to better understand the different factors that affect the transformation of perspectives, from a product perspective to a customer perspective, in paper/packaging producing organizations, with regard to product and service development. The understanding of the transformation of perspectives is interesting both from an expected customer outcome and from the viewpoint of the producing organization. The research aim is to highlight the perspective transformation in the organization on a system level as well as on an individual level, since the impact of individuals cannot be excluded when the aim is to understand such transformation.



It is identified from research in service management that customer orientation is central in service management and that service development emanates from customer needs. Therefore, learning from the service industry, for knowledge transfer and for implementation in the paper/packaging industry is part of this research. The entire research is based on different studies in the paper/packaging industry and in the service industry. All studies are based on real-life case situations with qualitative, subjective and interpretive analysis. The results from these different cases are presented in five separate papers that are appended to this thesis. The thesis takes up a summary of the papers and the entire research.



Based on the postulate that packaging development need to adopt a customer perspective, the research suggest for the packaging industry to align services to the core products for competitive advantage and increased customer value. The postulated customer perspective further proposes the package producer to regard oneself as part of the customers? and consumers? system. Models for working with the postulated perspective change as well as models for integration of individuals to the organizational systems are provided as a framework and theoretical contribution. The integration of the individuals to the organizational system concludes that the relations between employees and customers are pivotal for an increased understanding of customer needs. The interaction between product development employees and customers can therefore be enhanced through the trust of individuals within a system to transcend organizational boundaries into the entire system.



It is further concluded in the research, that the transformation of perspectives is dependent on individuals and their learning. A daily desire to learn within an organization and individual courage to question the status quo, is necessary for the change to happen. One practical contribution of this research is the methods developed for such individual learning and for changing individuals? mindsets from a product/feature perspective to a customer value perspective in product and service development.



In order to build knowledge about the transformation of perspectives, this research suggests action research as the preferred methodology for studying change processes. The main reason is the possibility to integrate human aspects into the change process and to get deep access to reality when studying the change of perspectives at the producer. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor, Chairman of IMA Gummesson, Evert, School of Business, Stockholm University
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Individual & Organizational Learning, Packaging Development, Customer Orientation, Perspective Change, Teknik, Technological sciences, Customer Value, Action Research, Innovation
pages
183 pages
publisher
Lund University (Media-Tryck)
defense location
Ingvar Kamprad Design Centrum Stora Hörsalen, Lund Institute of Technology
defense date
2006-01-12 10:15
external identifiers
  • Other:ISRN:LUTMDN/TMFL--06/2005--SE
ISBN
91-628-6713-X
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
604f3b7f-a293-4fac-8dd8-b526cf8bb9ca (old id 546020)
date added to LUP
2007-09-10 13:41:37
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:07
@phdthesis{604f3b7f-a293-4fac-8dd8-b526cf8bb9ca,
  abstract     = {The paper and packaging industry is a major and important industry in Sweden. The industry is capital intensive with a large investment base and long cycles for renewal and replenishment of machine platforms and other production equipment. Thus, the paper/packaging industry traditionally has a technical product oriented view and product development in the industry is partly made and understood in isolation from customer and consumer knowledge. In the packaging industry, paper material is the dominant but has lately experienced increased competition from plastics. In this prevailing situation, it has been hard to identify competitive advantages of paper material and packaging producers and converters have not been able to meet the changed market and customer requirements. The paper industry therefore needs to provide packaging materials and packaging solutions that provide competitive advantage and meet the needs and expectations of customers and consumers. Based on this background, the basic postulate proposed for investigation in this research is the need to turn toward a customer perspective, with increased customer understanding, in the development of packages and paper packaging material.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The purpose of this research is to better understand the different factors that affect the transformation of perspectives, from a product perspective to a customer perspective, in paper/packaging producing organizations, with regard to product and service development. The understanding of the transformation of perspectives is interesting both from an expected customer outcome and from the viewpoint of the producing organization. The research aim is to highlight the perspective transformation in the organization on a system level as well as on an individual level, since the impact of individuals cannot be excluded when the aim is to understand such transformation.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
It is identified from research in service management that customer orientation is central in service management and that service development emanates from customer needs. Therefore, learning from the service industry, for knowledge transfer and for implementation in the paper/packaging industry is part of this research. The entire research is based on different studies in the paper/packaging industry and in the service industry. All studies are based on real-life case situations with qualitative, subjective and interpretive analysis. The results from these different cases are presented in five separate papers that are appended to this thesis. The thesis takes up a summary of the papers and the entire research.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Based on the postulate that packaging development need to adopt a customer perspective, the research suggest for the packaging industry to align services to the core products for competitive advantage and increased customer value. The postulated customer perspective further proposes the package producer to regard oneself as part of the customers? and consumers? system. Models for working with the postulated perspective change as well as models for integration of individuals to the organizational systems are provided as a framework and theoretical contribution. The integration of the individuals to the organizational system concludes that the relations between employees and customers are pivotal for an increased understanding of customer needs. The interaction between product development employees and customers can therefore be enhanced through the trust of individuals within a system to transcend organizational boundaries into the entire system.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
It is further concluded in the research, that the transformation of perspectives is dependent on individuals and their learning. A daily desire to learn within an organization and individual courage to question the status quo, is necessary for the change to happen. One practical contribution of this research is the methods developed for such individual learning and for changing individuals? mindsets from a product/feature perspective to a customer value perspective in product and service development.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
In order to build knowledge about the transformation of perspectives, this research suggests action research as the preferred methodology for studying change processes. The main reason is the possibility to integrate human aspects into the change process and to get deep access to reality when studying the change of perspectives at the producer.},
  author       = {Olsson, Annika},
  isbn         = {91-628-6713-X},
  keyword      = {Individual & Organizational Learning,Packaging Development,Customer Orientation,Perspective Change,Teknik,Technological sciences,Customer Value,Action Research,Innovation},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {183},
  publisher    = {Lund University (Media-Tryck)},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {The Change from Feature Focus to Customer Focus in Packaging Development},
  year         = {2006},
}