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Beyond Massive-MIMO : The Potential of Data-Transmission with Large Intelligent Surfaces

Hu, Sha LU ; Rusek, Fredrik LU and Edfors, Ove LU (2018) In IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Abstract

In this paper, we consider the potential of data-transmission in a system with a massive number of radiating and sensing elements, thought of as a contiguous surface of electromagnetically active material. We refer to this as a Large Intelligent Surface (LIS). The "LIS" is a newly proposed concept, which conceptually goes beyond contemporary massive MIMO technology, and arises from our vision of a future where man-made structures are electronically active with integrated electronics and wireless communication making the entire environment "intelligent". Firstly, we consider capacities of single-antenna autonomous terminals communicating to the LIS where the entire surface is used as a receiving antenna-array in a perfect line-of-sight... (More)

In this paper, we consider the potential of data-transmission in a system with a massive number of radiating and sensing elements, thought of as a contiguous surface of electromagnetically active material. We refer to this as a Large Intelligent Surface (LIS). The "LIS" is a newly proposed concept, which conceptually goes beyond contemporary massive MIMO technology, and arises from our vision of a future where man-made structures are electronically active with integrated electronics and wireless communication making the entire environment "intelligent". Firstly, we consider capacities of single-antenna autonomous terminals communicating to the LIS where the entire surface is used as a receiving antenna-array in a perfect line-of-sight (LOS) propagation environment. Under the condition that the surface-area is sufficiently large, the received signal after a matched-filtering (MF) operation can be closely approximated by a sinc-function-like intersymbol interference (ISI) channel. Secondly, we analyze a normalized capacity measured per unit-surface, for a fixed transmit power per volume-unit with different terminal-deployments. As terminal-density increases, the limit of the normalized capacity [nats/s/Hz/volume-unit] achieved when wavelength <formula><tex>$\lambda$</tex></formula> approaches zero is equal to half of the transmit power per volume-unit divided by noise spatial power spectral density (PSD). Thirdly, we show that the number of independent signal dimensions that can be harvested per meter deployed surface is <formula><tex>$2/\lambda$</tex></formula> for one-dimensional terminal-deployment, and <formula><tex>$\pi/\lambda^{2}$</tex></formula> per square meter for two and three dimensional terminal-deployments. Lastly, we consider implementations of the LIS in the form of a grid of conventional antenna-elements, and show that the sampling lattice that minimizes the surface-area and simultaneously obtains one independent signal dimension for every spent antenna is the hexagonal lattice.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
epub
subject
keywords
2D sampling, Hankel transform, hexagonal lattice, independent signal dimension, intersymbol interference (ISI), Large intelligent surface (LIS), Lattices, Lenses, line-of-sight (LOS), massive multiinput multi-output (MIMO), MIMO communication, normalized capacity, Receiving antennas, Surface treatment, Surface waves
in
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
publisher
IEEE--Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
external identifiers
  • scopus:85044028460
ISSN
1053-587X
DOI
10.1109/TSP.2018.2816577
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
552776ea-89af-4ec4-953d-a0d9716117ad
date added to LUP
2017-08-25 16:42:11
date last changed
2018-04-12 13:09:29
@article{552776ea-89af-4ec4-953d-a0d9716117ad,
  abstract     = {<p>In this paper, we consider the potential of data-transmission in a system with a massive number of radiating and sensing elements, thought of as a contiguous surface of electromagnetically active material. We refer to this as a Large Intelligent Surface (LIS). The "LIS" is a newly proposed concept, which conceptually goes beyond contemporary massive MIMO technology, and arises from our vision of a future where man-made structures are electronically active with integrated electronics and wireless communication making the entire environment "intelligent". Firstly, we consider capacities of single-antenna autonomous terminals communicating to the LIS where the entire surface is used as a receiving antenna-array in a perfect line-of-sight (LOS) propagation environment. Under the condition that the surface-area is sufficiently large, the received signal after a matched-filtering (MF) operation can be closely approximated by a sinc-function-like intersymbol interference (ISI) channel. Secondly, we analyze a normalized capacity measured per unit-surface, for a fixed transmit power per volume-unit with different terminal-deployments. As terminal-density increases, the limit of the normalized capacity [nats/s/Hz/volume-unit] achieved when wavelength &lt;formula&gt;&lt;tex&gt;$\lambda$&lt;/tex&gt;&lt;/formula&gt; approaches zero is equal to half of the transmit power per volume-unit divided by noise spatial power spectral density (PSD). Thirdly, we show that the number of independent signal dimensions that can be harvested per meter deployed surface is &lt;formula&gt;&lt;tex&gt;$2/\lambda$&lt;/tex&gt;&lt;/formula&gt; for one-dimensional terminal-deployment, and &lt;formula&gt;&lt;tex&gt;$\pi/\lambda^{2}$&lt;/tex&gt;&lt;/formula&gt; per square meter for two and three dimensional terminal-deployments. Lastly, we consider implementations of the LIS in the form of a grid of conventional antenna-elements, and show that the sampling lattice that minimizes the surface-area and simultaneously obtains one independent signal dimension for every spent antenna is the hexagonal lattice.</p>},
  author       = {Hu, Sha and Rusek, Fredrik and Edfors, Ove},
  issn         = {1053-587X},
  keyword      = {2D sampling,Hankel transform,hexagonal lattice,independent signal dimension,intersymbol interference (ISI),Large intelligent surface (LIS),Lattices,Lenses,line-of-sight (LOS),massive multiinput multi-output (MIMO),MIMO communication,normalized capacity,Receiving antennas,Surface treatment,Surface waves},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {03},
  publisher    = {IEEE--Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.},
  series       = {IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing},
  title        = {Beyond Massive-MIMO : The Potential of Data-Transmission with Large Intelligent Surfaces},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSP.2018.2816577},
  year         = {2018},
}