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Origin and diversification of the california flora: re-examining classic hypotheses with molecular phylogenies.

Lancaster, Lesley LU and Kay, Kathleen M (2013) In Evolution 67(4). p.1041-1054
Abstract
The California Floristic Province exhibits one of the richest floras on the planet, with more than 5500 native plant species, approximately 40% of which are endemic. Despite its impressive diversity and the attention it has garnered from ecologists and evolutionary biologists, historical causes of species richness and endemism in California remain poorly understood. Using a phylogenetic analysis of 16 angiosperm clades, each containing California natives in addition to species found only outside California, we show that CA's current biodiversity primarily results from low extinction rates, as opposed to elevated speciation or immigration rates. Speciation rates in California were lowest among Arcto-Tertiary lineages (i.e., those colonizing... (More)
The California Floristic Province exhibits one of the richest floras on the planet, with more than 5500 native plant species, approximately 40% of which are endemic. Despite its impressive diversity and the attention it has garnered from ecologists and evolutionary biologists, historical causes of species richness and endemism in California remain poorly understood. Using a phylogenetic analysis of 16 angiosperm clades, each containing California natives in addition to species found only outside California, we show that CA's current biodiversity primarily results from low extinction rates, as opposed to elevated speciation or immigration rates. Speciation rates in California were lowest among Arcto-Tertiary lineages (i.e., those colonizing California from the north, during the Tertiary), but extinction rates were universally low across California native plants of all historical, geographic origins. In contrast to long-accepted ideas, we find that California diversification rates were generally unaffected by the onset of the Mediterranean climate. However, the Mediterranean climate coincided with immigration of many desert species, validating one previous hypothesis regarding origins of CA's plant diversity. This study implicates topographic complexity and climatic buffering as key, long-standing features of CA's landscape favoring plant species persistence and diversification, and highlights California as an important refuge under changing climates. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
extinction, Biogeography, fossils, macroevolution, phylogenetics, speciation
in
Evolution
volume
67
issue
4
pages
1041 - 1054
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • pmid:23550754
  • wos:000317133800010
  • scopus:84875808416
ISSN
1558-5646
DOI
10.1111/evo.12016
project
BECC
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
5c01aa04-b1b1-4d3c-b377-846e07c49ebd (old id 3734274)
date added to LUP
2013-05-23 14:50:39
date last changed
2019-04-21 03:08:23
@article{5c01aa04-b1b1-4d3c-b377-846e07c49ebd,
  abstract     = {The California Floristic Province exhibits one of the richest floras on the planet, with more than 5500 native plant species, approximately 40% of which are endemic. Despite its impressive diversity and the attention it has garnered from ecologists and evolutionary biologists, historical causes of species richness and endemism in California remain poorly understood. Using a phylogenetic analysis of 16 angiosperm clades, each containing California natives in addition to species found only outside California, we show that CA's current biodiversity primarily results from low extinction rates, as opposed to elevated speciation or immigration rates. Speciation rates in California were lowest among Arcto-Tertiary lineages (i.e., those colonizing California from the north, during the Tertiary), but extinction rates were universally low across California native plants of all historical, geographic origins. In contrast to long-accepted ideas, we find that California diversification rates were generally unaffected by the onset of the Mediterranean climate. However, the Mediterranean climate coincided with immigration of many desert species, validating one previous hypothesis regarding origins of CA's plant diversity. This study implicates topographic complexity and climatic buffering as key, long-standing features of CA's landscape favoring plant species persistence and diversification, and highlights California as an important refuge under changing climates.},
  author       = {Lancaster, Lesley and Kay, Kathleen M},
  issn         = {1558-5646},
  keyword      = {extinction,Biogeography,fossils,macroevolution,phylogenetics,speciation},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {1041--1054},
  publisher    = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  series       = {Evolution},
  title        = {Origin and diversification of the california flora: re-examining classic hypotheses with molecular phylogenies.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.12016},
  volume       = {67},
  year         = {2013},
}