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”Alla är ju med alla…” : Kamratskapande gruppinteraktioner i skolan

Heintz, Maria LU (2018)
Abstract (Swedish)
Social interaktion sker ofta i grupper. För barn är skolklassen en grupp de dagligen interagerar i. Skolklassen och den sociala interaktion som sker i skolan har stor betydelse för barns välmående och framtida sociala interaktioner. Lärarna i skolan har därför i uppdrag att arbeta med barns sociala samspel och mot kränkande behandling. Avhandlingens övergripande syfte att öka förståelsen för barns kamratskapande gruppinteraktioner är av stor betydelse i detta hänseende.

Syftet med avhandlingen är att utifrån barns interaktion i, och beskrivningar av, skolklassen och kompisgrupper inom skolklassen öka kunskapen om vad som sker mellan barn i de grupprocesser som uppkommer när barn interagerar inom ramen för skolan. Följande... (More)
Social interaktion sker ofta i grupper. För barn är skolklassen en grupp de dagligen interagerar i. Skolklassen och den sociala interaktion som sker i skolan har stor betydelse för barns välmående och framtida sociala interaktioner. Lärarna i skolan har därför i uppdrag att arbeta med barns sociala samspel och mot kränkande behandling. Avhandlingens övergripande syfte att öka förståelsen för barns kamratskapande gruppinteraktioner är av stor betydelse i detta hänseende.

Syftet med avhandlingen är att utifrån barns interaktion i, och beskrivningar av, skolklassen och kompisgrupper inom skolklassen öka kunskapen om vad som sker mellan barn i de grupprocesser som uppkommer när barn interagerar inom ramen för skolan. Följande forskningsfrågor har styrt arbetet: (a) Hur interagerar barn i en skolklass? (b) Hur beskriver barn samspelet med varandra? (c) Hur förhåller sig barnens interaktion till skolans formella organisering?

Det empiriska materialet samlades in utifrån en etnografisk ansats. Flera olika kvalitativa metoder användes: deltagande observationer, individuella intervjuer samt fokusgruppsintervjuer. De deltagande observationerna gjordes i en skolklass i årskurs fyra som bestod av 23 barn i 10-11 års ålder. Barnen observerades och intervjuades, både individuellt och i fokusgrupper, under ett skolår (2011-2012). Också de båda klasslärarna intervjuades.

Analysen utgick från ett interaktionistiskt perspektiv där Randall Collins teori om interaktionsritualkedjor har kombinerats med gruppsykologiska begrepp såsom normer, konformitet och gruppkänslor. Resultaten visar att barns interaktioner, tolkade som kamratskapande grupprocesser, består av interaktionsritualkedjor. Dessa interaktionskedjor påverkar både hur samspelet mellan barnen ser ut och hur samspelet mellan barnen och skolans formella organisering tar sig uttryck. Genom den emotionella energi som skapas i barnens interaktionsritualer uppstår olika typer av gemenskap. I storgruppsinteraktioner uppkommer en gemenskap med klasskompisar och en känsla av tillhörighet till skolklassen som helhet. I smågruppsinteraktioner uppkommer däremot en gemenskap och känsla av samhörighet med kompisarna i lekgruppen. Resultaten visar att dessa två typer av gemenskaper påverkar lärarens arbete med barnens sociala interaktion i skolan. Å ena sidan tycks barnen integrera skolnormen ”alla får vara med” i sina storgruppsinteraktioner. Å andra sidan tycks barnen söka känslan av samhörighet och den emotionella energi som smågruppsinteraktionerna genererar. Detta, i sin tur, skapar en spänning mellan barns interaktioner och skolans formella organisation.
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Abstract
Social interaction often takes place in groups. The school class is an important group in which children interact. Children spend a large percentage of their day with their classmates in school and classmates are not only co-workers, but also individuals interacting socially as friends. Several studies show that social interaction and friendship in school effect children’s wellbeing, academic performance and identity development. Furthermore, the compulsory school is the only mandatory social arena in today´s society. For that reason the school has a distinct function as an institution where childhood is regulated and normality and deviation is defined. This implies the teachers to work with children’s social interactions. Thus, the... (More)
Social interaction often takes place in groups. The school class is an important group in which children interact. Children spend a large percentage of their day with their classmates in school and classmates are not only co-workers, but also individuals interacting socially as friends. Several studies show that social interaction and friendship in school effect children’s wellbeing, academic performance and identity development. Furthermore, the compulsory school is the only mandatory social arena in today´s society. For that reason the school has a distinct function as an institution where childhood is regulated and normality and deviation is defined. This implies the teachers to work with children’s social interactions. Thus, the understanding of group affiliation and friendship interaction in school is of great importance.

The main aim of the thesis is to further the knowledge of children’s interactions and friendship making group processes that takes place within a school class. The research questions focused on (a) how children interact within a school class, (b) how children describe these interactions and (c) how children’s interaction relate to the school’s formal organization.

The empirical material was collected inspired by an ethnographic approach. A range of qualitative methods were used: participatory observations, individual and focus group interviews and retrieval of policy documents. The participatory observations were performed in a fourth grade school class of 23 children at the age of 10-11 years. The children were observed and interviewed, both individually and in focus groups during a period of one school year (2011-2012). An interview with the two teachers were also conducted.

The analysis was performed from the perspective of interactionism and group psychology with an emphasis on Randall Collins theory of interaction ritual chains. The results in the study shows that children’s interactions, understood as friendship making group processes, consist of a chain of interaction rituals. The interaction ritual chains influences both how the interaction between children is performed and how the children’s interactions relate to the school’s formal organization. Different forms of belonging emerges through the emotional energy generated in the children’s interactions. In large group interaction the belonging is understood as a feeling of affiliation with the classmates and the school class as a whole. In small group interaction the belonging is understood as a feeling of togetherness with friends and within the play group. The results pointed out how these two forms of belonging influence the teacher’s work with children’s social interaction in school. On one hand, the children seem to integrate the school norm “everyone may join” in their large group interactions. On the other hand, the children are seeking the feeling of togetherness and emotional energy that small group interactions with friends generate. This, in turn, creates a tension between the children’s interactions and the school’s formal organization.
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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor Thornberg, Robert, Linköping University
organization
alternative title
”Everyone hangs out with everyone…” : Friendship making and group interactions in school.
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
social interaktion, barn, skola, skola som institution, emotionell energi, interaktionsritual, grupp processer, Randall Collins, kamratskapande, kompisar, klasskamrater, gruppteori, grupp, social interaction, CHILDREN, school, emotional energy, interaction rituals, group processes, Randall Collins, school as institution, group
pages
264 pages
defense location
Eden auditorium, Paradisgatan 5H, Lund
defense date
2018-06-15 13:15
ISBN
978-91-89604-60-5
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
609e79c7-7589-424f-b4b5-6679cfef3b07
date added to LUP
2018-05-15 08:32:02
date last changed
2018-05-17 13:47:56
@phdthesis{609e79c7-7589-424f-b4b5-6679cfef3b07,
  abstract     = {Social interaction often takes place in groups. The school class is an important group in which children interact. Children spend a large percentage of their day with their classmates in school and classmates are not only co-workers, but also individuals interacting socially as friends. Several studies show that social interaction and friendship in school effect children’s wellbeing, academic performance and identity development. Furthermore, the compulsory school is the only mandatory social arena in today´s society. For that reason the school has a distinct function as an institution where childhood is regulated and normality and deviation is defined. This implies the teachers to work with children’s social interactions. Thus, the understanding of group affiliation and friendship interaction in school is of great importance.<br/><br/>The main aim of the thesis is to further the knowledge of children’s interactions and friendship making group processes that takes place within a school class. The research questions focused on (a) how children interact within a school class, (b) how children describe these interactions and (c) how children’s interaction relate to the school’s formal organization.  <br/><br/>The empirical material was collected inspired by an ethnographic approach. A range of qualitative methods were used: participatory observations, individual and focus group interviews and retrieval of policy documents. The participatory observations were performed in a fourth grade school class of 23 children at the age of 10-11 years. The children were observed and interviewed, both individually and in focus groups during a period of one school year (2011-2012). An interview with the two teachers were also conducted.  <br/><br/>The analysis was performed from the perspective of interactionism and group psychology with an emphasis on Randall Collins theory of interaction ritual chains. The results in the study shows that children’s interactions, understood as friendship making group processes, consist of a chain of interaction rituals. The interaction ritual chains influences both how the interaction between children is performed and how the children’s interactions relate to the school’s formal organization.  Different forms of belonging emerges through the emotional energy generated in the children’s interactions. In large group interaction the belonging is understood as a feeling of affiliation with the classmates and the school class as a whole. In small group interaction the belonging is understood as a feeling of togetherness with friends and within the play group. The results pointed out how these two forms of belonging influence the teacher’s work with children’s social interaction in school. On one hand, the children seem to integrate the school norm “everyone may join” in their large group interactions. On the other hand, the children are seeking the feeling of togetherness and emotional energy that small group interactions with friends generate. This, in turn, creates a tension between the children’s interactions and the school’s formal organization.  <br/>},
  author       = {Heintz, Maria},
  isbn         = {978-91-89604-60-5},
  keyword      = {social interaktion,barn,skola,skola som institution,emotionell energi,interaktionsritual,grupp processer,Randall Collins,kamratskapande,kompisar,klasskamrater,gruppteori,grupp,social interaction,CHILDREN,school,emotional energy,interaction rituals,group processes,Randall Collins,school as institution,group},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {264},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {”Alla är ju med alla…” : Kamratskapande gruppinteraktioner i skolan },
  year         = {2018},
}