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En pilotstudie om arbete i kyla - frågeundersökning och fältstudie

Gavhed, Désirée; Kuklane, Kalev LU ; Karlsson, Eva and Holmér, Ingvar LU (1999) In Arbetslivsrapport 1999:4.
Abstract (Swedish)
En pilotstudie som innefattade en frågeundersökning på några arbetsplatser och en

fältstudie på en av dessa arbetsplatser genomförde's under vintern 1997/98. Studien

hade som syfte att sammanlänka laboratorieresultat med resultat under verkliga arbetsförhållanden

och att kartlägga problem för individer vid utomhusarbete vintertid.

Frågeformulären besvarade's av 43 hamnarbetare, mast- och teletekniker och tullpersonal

(svarsfrekven's 65 %) mellan 21 och 61 år. Arbetstyngden varierade mellan

mycket lätt och mycket tungt och var ganska jämnt fördelad mellan nivåerna. Drygt

halva arbetsdagen var man i kyla (<0 °C). De flesta angav att de var besvärade av kyla

på... (More)
En pilotstudie som innefattade en frågeundersökning på några arbetsplatser och en

fältstudie på en av dessa arbetsplatser genomförde's under vintern 1997/98. Studien

hade som syfte att sammanlänka laboratorieresultat med resultat under verkliga arbetsförhållanden

och att kartlägga problem för individer vid utomhusarbete vintertid.

Frågeformulären besvarade's av 43 hamnarbetare, mast- och teletekniker och tullpersonal

(svarsfrekven's 65 %) mellan 21 och 61 år. Arbetstyngden varierade mellan

mycket lätt och mycket tungt och var ganska jämnt fördelad mellan nivåerna. Drygt

halva arbetsdagen var man i kyla (<0 °C). De flesta angav att de var besvärade av kyla

på arbetsplatsen, ”någon gång” till ”alltid”. Vind angav's vara en av de viktigaste orsakerna

till besvär. Några (14 %) hade råkat ut för kylskada i arbetet. Fötter, tår, händer,

fingrar, ansikte och öron var de kroppsdelar som oftast kände's kallast. Orsakerna till

kalla händer och fötter var framför allt att skor och handskar erbjöd alltför dålig isolation.

Mer än hälften hade oftare än 1 gång per vecka haft svårigheter att använda verktyg

på grund av kalla fingrar. Bara hälften av de svarande var nöjda med sina arbetskläder.

Ytterkläder, skor och vantar/handskar var de plagg som man var minst nöjda

med. Olika önskemål om förändringar av arbetskläderna angav's. Halkrisk var ett annat

vanligt förekommande problem.

I fältstudien deltog åtta hamnarbetare mellan 31 och 62 år. De följde's under en vanlig

arbetsdag. Skattning av ansträngningen vid arbete varierade från “mycket, mycket

lätt” till “ansträngande”. Troligen beroende på milt väder (lufttemperatur: +4 - +8 °C)

och låga lufthastigheter under mätdagarna var de flesta (fem) inte besvärade av kyla,

två personer bara några gånger under dagen. En person kände sig dock besvärad av

kyla hela arbetstiden. Tå- och fottemperaturerna var ganska höga i de välisolerade vinterkängorna.

Bara den person, som hade lågskor, kände sig kall om fötterna. Händerna

värmde's upp flera gånger under rasterna, vilket resulterade i att låga temperaturer inte

förekom så ofta, utan främst i slutet av längre arbetsperioder. Händer, tår och lår hade

de lägsta temperaturerna, utöver kinden som var oskyddad hela tiden. Kroppen var

varm ho's de flesta under arbetet, bara en person kände sig kall i kroppen efter en

arbetsperiod. Enligt våra skattningar av isolationsvärdet och bedömning enligt kylaindexet

IREQ hade alla studiepersoner mer än tillräcklig isolation för att inte bli nedkylda

under en arbetsdag, utom en som hade preci's tillräcklig isolation. Medelhudtemperaturen

och vid flera tillfällen handtemperaturen var under arbetet dock något

lägre än det kriterium för komfort som ställ's i IREQ.

Även i fältstudien uttryckte's visst missnöje med skyddskläderna. En slutsat's av studien

var att fortsatt utveckling av arbetshandskar och skyddsskor tyck's behöva's. Till

vis's del kan problemen i kyla förmodligen lösa's genom att de skyddsprodukter som är

bäst mot kyla köp's in och använd's. Detta kräver dock information och kunskap. Många

upplevde kyla och vind som besvärande. I rapporten föreslog's åtgärder för att förhindra

besvär av kyla vid utomhusarbete. (Less)
Abstract
Désirée Gavhed, Kalev Kuklane, Eva Karlsson, Ingvar Holmér. A pilot study on work

in the cold - questionnaire survey and field study. Arbetslivsrapport 1999:4.

A pilot study regarding work in cold conditions was performed during the winter period

1997-1998. The study comprised two parts, a questionnaire survey and a set of

field measurements. The purpose of the study was to link laboratory studies with results

from real life conditions and to map problems for individuals at occupational

work outdoors in winter.

The questionnaires were answered by 43 persons (21-61 years old): harbour

workers, mastworkers, telecommunication technicians and customs personnel... (More)
Désirée Gavhed, Kalev Kuklane, Eva Karlsson, Ingvar Holmér. A pilot study on work

in the cold - questionnaire survey and field study. Arbetslivsrapport 1999:4.

A pilot study regarding work in cold conditions was performed during the winter period

1997-1998. The study comprised two parts, a questionnaire survey and a set of

field measurements. The purpose of the study was to link laboratory studies with results

from real life conditions and to map problems for individuals at occupational

work outdoors in winter.

The questionnaires were answered by 43 persons (21-61 years old): harbour

workers, mastworkers, telecommunication technicians and customs personnel (response

rate 65 %). The normal workload varied between “very light” to “very heavy”

and was uniformly distributed between the work load levels. More than half of the

working day was spent outdoors, even in temperatures below 0 °C. 84 % of the respondents

reported that they were bothered by cold at the working place, at “a few occasions”

to “always”. Wind was the most important cause. A few respondents (14 %) had

got a frostbite in connection with occupational work. Feet, toes, hands, fingers, face

and ears were experienced as the coolest body parts. The reasons for cold hands and

feet were connected with the insufficient insulation of the provided shoes and gloves.

More than half of the respondents had had difficulties to use tools more often than

once a week due to cold fingers. Only half of the respondents were satisfied with their

work clothes. They were least satisfied with their outdoor clothes (outer shell), shoes

and gloves. Requirements concerning improvements of the work clothing were given

by the participants. Slipping was another common problem.

Eight harbour workers (31-62 years old) participated in the field study. They were

studied during one ordinary workday. The rating of perceived exertion varied between

“very, very light” to “hard”. Probably due to the mild weather (+4 - +8 °C), only two

were bothered by cold occasionally and one the whole workday. The toe and foot temperatures

were relatively high in the well insulated boots. Only one person, who wore

shoes, experienced cold feet. The hands, toes, thighs and cheek had the lowest temperatures.

The body was warm in most participants during work, only one individual

felt cold after one work session. According to our estimations of the clothing insulation

value and assessment of the cold strain with the cold index IREQ, all the participants

had more than sufficient or just sufficient insulation to avoid body core cooling

during a working day. However, during work, the mean skin temperatures and, at several

occasions, the hand temperatures, mainly in the end of longer work periods, were

somewhat lower than the comfort criteria in IREQ. Similar to the survey, the field study

brought up some complaints about the protective garments.

Many participants were bothered by cold and wind. Actions to prevent problems

with cold work were suggested in the report. Further development of protective gloves

and footwear is needed. To some extent, the problems in cold may be solved by purchase

and use of the best products on the market. This requires more knowledge and

information on products and insulation requirements in various conditions.

Keywords: clothing insulation, footwear, temperature, port, customs, work on masts. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Book/Report
publication status
published
subject
keywords
arbetskläder, isolation, skyddsskor, temperatur, hamn, mastarbete, tull
in
Arbetslivsrapport
volume
1999:4
pages
26 pages
publisher
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden
ISSN
1401-2928
language
Swedish
LU publication?
no
id
324ce3be-e561-47b3-88f3-dfba9b9cb8ba (old id 635944)
alternative location
http://ebib.sub.su.se/arb/1999/arb1999_04.pdf
date added to LUP
2007-12-12 16:06:30
date last changed
2016-04-16 04:50:45
@techreport{324ce3be-e561-47b3-88f3-dfba9b9cb8ba,
  abstract     = {Désirée Gavhed, Kalev Kuklane, Eva Karlsson, Ingvar Holmér. A pilot study on work<br/><br>
in the cold - questionnaire survey and field study. Arbetslivsrapport 1999:4.<br/><br>
A pilot study regarding work in cold conditions was performed during the winter period<br/><br>
1997-1998. The study comprised two parts, a questionnaire survey and a set of<br/><br>
field measurements. The purpose of the study was to link laboratory studies with results<br/><br>
from real life conditions and to map problems for individuals at occupational<br/><br>
work outdoors in winter.<br/><br>
The questionnaires were answered by 43 persons (21-61 years old): harbour<br/><br>
workers, mastworkers, telecommunication technicians and customs personnel (response<br/><br>
rate 65 %). The normal workload varied between “very light” to “very heavy”<br/><br>
and was uniformly distributed between the work load levels. More than half of the<br/><br>
working day was spent outdoors, even in temperatures below 0 °C. 84 % of the respondents<br/><br>
reported that they were bothered by cold at the working place, at “a few occasions”<br/><br>
to “always”. Wind was the most important cause. A few respondents (14 %) had<br/><br>
got a frostbite in connection with occupational work. Feet, toes, hands, fingers, face<br/><br>
and ears were experienced as the coolest body parts. The reasons for cold hands and<br/><br>
feet were connected with the insufficient insulation of the provided shoes and gloves.<br/><br>
More than half of the respondents had had difficulties to use tools more often than<br/><br>
once a week due to cold fingers. Only half of the respondents were satisfied with their<br/><br>
work clothes. They were least satisfied with their outdoor clothes (outer shell), shoes<br/><br>
and gloves. Requirements concerning improvements of the work clothing were given<br/><br>
by the participants. Slipping was another common problem.<br/><br>
Eight harbour workers (31-62 years old) participated in the field study. They were<br/><br>
studied during one ordinary workday. The rating of perceived exertion varied between<br/><br>
“very, very light” to “hard”. Probably due to the mild weather (+4 - +8 °C), only two<br/><br>
were bothered by cold occasionally and one the whole workday. The toe and foot temperatures<br/><br>
were relatively high in the well insulated boots. Only one person, who wore<br/><br>
shoes, experienced cold feet. The hands, toes, thighs and cheek had the lowest temperatures.<br/><br>
The body was warm in most participants during work, only one individual<br/><br>
felt cold after one work session. According to our estimations of the clothing insulation<br/><br>
value and assessment of the cold strain with the cold index IREQ, all the participants<br/><br>
had more than sufficient or just sufficient insulation to avoid body core cooling<br/><br>
during a working day. However, during work, the mean skin temperatures and, at several<br/><br>
occasions, the hand temperatures, mainly in the end of longer work periods, were<br/><br>
somewhat lower than the comfort criteria in IREQ. Similar to the survey, the field study<br/><br>
brought up some complaints about the protective garments.<br/><br>
Many participants were bothered by cold and wind. Actions to prevent problems<br/><br>
with cold work were suggested in the report. Further development of protective gloves<br/><br>
and footwear is needed. To some extent, the problems in cold may be solved by purchase<br/><br>
and use of the best products on the market. This requires more knowledge and<br/><br>
information on products and insulation requirements in various conditions.<br/><br>
Keywords: clothing insulation, footwear, temperature, port, customs, work on masts.},
  author       = {Gavhed, Désirée and Kuklane, Kalev and Karlsson, Eva and Holmér, Ingvar},
  institution  = {Arbetslivsinstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden},
  issn         = {1401-2928},
  keyword      = {arbetskläder,isolation,skyddsskor,temperatur,hamn,mastarbete,tull},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {26},
  series       = {Arbetslivsrapport},
  title        = {En pilotstudie om arbete i kyla - frågeundersökning och fältstudie},
  volume       = {1999:4},
  year         = {1999},
}