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Cardiac and ventilatory responses to apneic exercise

Wein, Jens; Andersson, Johan LU and Erdéus, Johan (2007) In European Journal of Applied Physiology 100(6). p.637-644
Abstract
This study was to elucidate the physiological effects of dynamic apneas, as performed as a discipline in breath-hold diving for recreational or competitive purposes. Therefore, cardiovascular and respiratory effects of apneas with simultaneously initiated exercise were investigated in ten trained breath-hold divers. They performed maximum duration apneas with face immersion (26 degrees C) under rest and exercise (40 W, 80 W and 120 W) on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory. Apneic time, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), arterial oxygen saturation and O(2) [Formula: see text] and CO(2) exchange were measured. All end-apnea heart rates were lower than corresponding control values. Higher workloads increased the initial rise in... (More)
This study was to elucidate the physiological effects of dynamic apneas, as performed as a discipline in breath-hold diving for recreational or competitive purposes. Therefore, cardiovascular and respiratory effects of apneas with simultaneously initiated exercise were investigated in ten trained breath-hold divers. They performed maximum duration apneas with face immersion (26 degrees C) under rest and exercise (40 W, 80 W and 120 W) on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory. Apneic time, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), arterial oxygen saturation and O(2) [Formula: see text] and CO(2) exchange were measured. All end-apnea heart rates were lower than corresponding control values. Higher workloads increased the initial rise in HR and delayed the onset of bradycardia. After an initial drop, MAP rose to 150% of control towards the end of apnea. Apneic [Formula: see text] was reduced by 25% during exercise and by 40% during resting apneas compared to eupneic control values. It was concluded that magnitude and time course of diving bradycardia depend on work intensity. Higher workloads delay the onset and attenuate HR reduction, presumably due to increased sympathetic activity. It was also found that apnea with simultaneously initiated exercise has an O(2) conserving effect compared to eupneic exercise. Although aimed to be a realistic approach to breath-hold diving, the study has certain methodological limitations in terms of body-immersion (hydrostatic pressure effects) and body-cooling effects due to conduction of the experiments in a laboratory set-up. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Supplementation - Resistance exercise - Exercise and muscle damage - Hormonal responses to resistance exercise - Amino acids
in
European Journal of Applied Physiology
volume
100
issue
6
pages
637 - 644
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • wos:000248580900003
  • scopus:34948853237
ISSN
1439-6327
DOI
10.1007/s00421-007-0535-3
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
0bb3acd7-a9dd-426e-bc1d-aeee9c843f26 (old id 637805)
date added to LUP
2007-11-30 12:09:27
date last changed
2017-10-01 03:43:40
@article{0bb3acd7-a9dd-426e-bc1d-aeee9c843f26,
  abstract     = {This study was to elucidate the physiological effects of dynamic apneas, as performed as a discipline in breath-hold diving for recreational or competitive purposes. Therefore, cardiovascular and respiratory effects of apneas with simultaneously initiated exercise were investigated in ten trained breath-hold divers. They performed maximum duration apneas with face immersion (26 degrees C) under rest and exercise (40 W, 80 W and 120 W) on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory. Apneic time, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), arterial oxygen saturation and O(2) [Formula: see text] and CO(2) exchange were measured. All end-apnea heart rates were lower than corresponding control values. Higher workloads increased the initial rise in HR and delayed the onset of bradycardia. After an initial drop, MAP rose to 150% of control towards the end of apnea. Apneic [Formula: see text] was reduced by 25% during exercise and by 40% during resting apneas compared to eupneic control values. It was concluded that magnitude and time course of diving bradycardia depend on work intensity. Higher workloads delay the onset and attenuate HR reduction, presumably due to increased sympathetic activity. It was also found that apnea with simultaneously initiated exercise has an O(2) conserving effect compared to eupneic exercise. Although aimed to be a realistic approach to breath-hold diving, the study has certain methodological limitations in terms of body-immersion (hydrostatic pressure effects) and body-cooling effects due to conduction of the experiments in a laboratory set-up.},
  author       = {Wein, Jens and Andersson, Johan and Erdéus, Johan},
  issn         = {1439-6327},
  keyword      = {Supplementation - Resistance exercise - Exercise and muscle damage - Hormonal responses to resistance exercise - Amino acids},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {637--644},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {European Journal of Applied Physiology},
  title        = {Cardiac and ventilatory responses to apneic exercise},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-007-0535-3},
  volume       = {100},
  year         = {2007},
}