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Interaction of factors related to the metabolic syndrome and vitamin D on risk of prostate cancer

Tuohimaa, Pentti; Tenkanen, Leena; Syvala, Heimo; Lumme, Sonja; Hakulinen, Tirno; Dillner, Joakim LU and Hakama, Matti (2007) In Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 16(2). p.302-307
Abstract
Background: Factors related to the metabolic syndrome and low levels of vitamin D have been implicated as risk factors for prostate cancer. Insofar, no studies have assessed their joint effects on prostate cancer risk. Methods: We studied (a) the associations of vitamin D with the metabolic syndrome factors body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and (b) the prostate cancer risk associated with these factors and especially their joint effects with vitamin D on risk of prostate cancer. We did a longitudinal nested case-control study on 132 prostate cancer cases and 456 matched controls from a cohort of 18,939 Finnish middle-aged men from the Helsinki Heart Study. The odds... (More)
Background: Factors related to the metabolic syndrome and low levels of vitamin D have been implicated as risk factors for prostate cancer. Insofar, no studies have assessed their joint effects on prostate cancer risk. Methods: We studied (a) the associations of vitamin D with the metabolic syndrome factors body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and (b) the prostate cancer risk associated with these factors and especially their joint effects with vitamin D on risk of prostate cancer. We did a longitudinal nested case-control study on 132 prostate cancer cases and 456 matched controls from a cohort of 18,939 Finnish middle-aged men from the Helsinki Heart Study. The odds ratios (OR) of prostate cancer were assessed via conditional logistic regression analysis. Results: Apart from HDL-C, there was no linear association between the metabolic syndrome factors and vitamin D levels. In univariate analysis, men in the highest quartiles of body mass index (> 28 kg/m(2)) and systolic blood pressure (> 150 mmHg) showed a modest increase in risks of prostate cancer, with ORs of 1.37 (P = 0.16) and 1.53 (P = 0.05) when compared with the three lower quartiles, but low HDL-C entailed no prostate cancer risk. However, with all three factors present, the OR was 3.36 (P = 0.02), and jointly with low vitamin D (<= 40 nmol/L), the OR was 8.03 (P = 0.005) compared with those with no metabolic syndrome factors and intermediate levels of vitamin D. There was an interaction between vitamin D and the metabolic syndrome factors so that a clustering of these factors entailed high risk of prostate cancer but only if vitamin D level was low (<= 40 nmol/L). If it was at intermediate levels, the metabolic syndrome factors entailed no prostate cancer risk. Conclusions: We conclude that the prostate cancer risk associated with factors related to the metabolic syndrome is strongly conditioned by levels of vitamin D. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
volume
16
issue
2
pages
302 - 307
publisher
American Association for Cancer Research
external identifiers
  • wos:000244293400021
  • scopus:33847707281
ISSN
1538-7755
DOI
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0777
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
4368245f-4fa1-4583-ac05-c679fc5bbfd4 (old id 674259)
date added to LUP
2007-12-20 11:04:04
date last changed
2017-10-08 04:22:51
@article{4368245f-4fa1-4583-ac05-c679fc5bbfd4,
  abstract     = {Background: Factors related to the metabolic syndrome and low levels of vitamin D have been implicated as risk factors for prostate cancer. Insofar, no studies have assessed their joint effects on prostate cancer risk. Methods: We studied (a) the associations of vitamin D with the metabolic syndrome factors body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and (b) the prostate cancer risk associated with these factors and especially their joint effects with vitamin D on risk of prostate cancer. We did a longitudinal nested case-control study on 132 prostate cancer cases and 456 matched controls from a cohort of 18,939 Finnish middle-aged men from the Helsinki Heart Study. The odds ratios (OR) of prostate cancer were assessed via conditional logistic regression analysis. Results: Apart from HDL-C, there was no linear association between the metabolic syndrome factors and vitamin D levels. In univariate analysis, men in the highest quartiles of body mass index (&gt; 28 kg/m(2)) and systolic blood pressure (&gt; 150 mmHg) showed a modest increase in risks of prostate cancer, with ORs of 1.37 (P = 0.16) and 1.53 (P = 0.05) when compared with the three lower quartiles, but low HDL-C entailed no prostate cancer risk. However, with all three factors present, the OR was 3.36 (P = 0.02), and jointly with low vitamin D (&lt;= 40 nmol/L), the OR was 8.03 (P = 0.005) compared with those with no metabolic syndrome factors and intermediate levels of vitamin D. There was an interaction between vitamin D and the metabolic syndrome factors so that a clustering of these factors entailed high risk of prostate cancer but only if vitamin D level was low (&lt;= 40 nmol/L). If it was at intermediate levels, the metabolic syndrome factors entailed no prostate cancer risk. Conclusions: We conclude that the prostate cancer risk associated with factors related to the metabolic syndrome is strongly conditioned by levels of vitamin D.},
  author       = {Tuohimaa, Pentti and Tenkanen, Leena and Syvala, Heimo and Lumme, Sonja and Hakulinen, Tirno and Dillner, Joakim and Hakama, Matti},
  issn         = {1538-7755},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {302--307},
  publisher    = {American Association for Cancer Research},
  series       = {Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention},
  title        = {Interaction of factors related to the metabolic syndrome and vitamin D on risk of prostate cancer},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0777},
  volume       = {16},
  year         = {2007},
}