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A Fast Crank Angle Resolved Zero-Dimensional NOx Model Implemented on a Field-Programmable Gate Array

Muric, Kenan LU ; Tunestål, Per LU and Stenlåås, Ola LU (2013) SAE World Congress & Exhibition, 2013 6(1). p.246-256
Abstract
In the automotive industry, the piezo-based in-cylinder pressure sensor is getting commercialized and used in production vehicles. For example, the pressure sensor offers the opportunity to design algorithms for estimation of engine emissions, such as soot and NO, during a combustion cycle. In this paper a zero-dimensional NO model for a diesel engine is implemented that will be used in real time. The model is based on the thermal NO formation and the Zeldovich mechanism using two non-geometrical zones: burned and unburned zone. The influence of EGR on combustion temperature was modeled using a well-known thermodynamic identity where specific heat at constant pressure is included. Specific heat will vary with temperature and the gas... (More)
In the automotive industry, the piezo-based in-cylinder pressure sensor is getting commercialized and used in production vehicles. For example, the pressure sensor offers the opportunity to design algorithms for estimation of engine emissions, such as soot and NO, during a combustion cycle. In this paper a zero-dimensional NO model for a diesel engine is implemented that will be used in real time. The model is based on the thermal NO formation and the Zeldovich mechanism using two non-geometrical zones: burned and unburned zone. The influence of EGR on combustion temperature was modeled using a well-known thermodynamic identity where specific heat at constant pressure is included. Specific heat will vary with temperature and the gas composition. The model was implemented in LabVIEW using tools specific for an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array). In order to simplify and implement the model, least-squares-criterion-based polynomial approximations are used that enables the utilization of fast algorithms as well as sub-routines (sub-VIs). The sub-routines can be used to save space on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and thus minimizing the risk of potential issues regarding overmapping of the hardware. In this case the interpolating functions are polynomials that only consume addition and multiplication operations. This is suited for the objective in mind due to the fact that the model tailored for an FPGA cannot, in a sufficient manner, handle highly complex calculations nor divisions. The time results obtained during the execution of the model indicates that it is possible to update the NO, at a given temporal state, well below the time corresponding to a crank angle degree. The FPGA NO model was tested against measurement data collected from a Scania engine. The time needed to execute an iteration of the model was approximately 3 μs. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Internal Combustion Engines, Diesel Engines, FPGA, Emission Model
host publication
SAE international journal of engines
volume
6
issue
1
pages
246 - 256
publisher
Society of Automotive Engineers
conference name
SAE World Congress & Exhibition, 2013
conference location
Detroit, Michigan, United States
conference dates
2013-04-16 - 2013-04-18
external identifiers
  • other:2013-01-0344
  • scopus:84878779911
ISSN
1946-3936
1946-3944
DOI
10.4271/2013-01-0344
project
Closed-Loop Diesel Control - Part 2
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
680c44d1-a860-455a-a737-4bbc65efafa9 (old id 4318404)
alternative location
http://papers.sae.org/2013-01-0344/
date added to LUP
2016-04-01 09:48:58
date last changed
2020-01-05 03:07:37
@inproceedings{680c44d1-a860-455a-a737-4bbc65efafa9,
  abstract     = {In the automotive industry, the piezo-based in-cylinder pressure sensor is getting commercialized and used in production vehicles. For example, the pressure sensor offers the opportunity to design algorithms for estimation of engine emissions, such as soot and NO, during a combustion cycle. In this paper a zero-dimensional NO model for a diesel engine is implemented that will be used in real time. The model is based on the thermal NO formation and the Zeldovich mechanism using two non-geometrical zones: burned and unburned zone. The influence of EGR on combustion temperature was modeled using a well-known thermodynamic identity where specific heat at constant pressure is included. Specific heat will vary with temperature and the gas composition. The model was implemented in LabVIEW using tools specific for an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array). In order to simplify and implement the model, least-squares-criterion-based polynomial approximations are used that enables the utilization of fast algorithms as well as sub-routines (sub-VIs). The sub-routines can be used to save space on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and thus minimizing the risk of potential issues regarding overmapping of the hardware. In this case the interpolating functions are polynomials that only consume addition and multiplication operations. This is suited for the objective in mind due to the fact that the model tailored for an FPGA cannot, in a sufficient manner, handle highly complex calculations nor divisions. The time results obtained during the execution of the model indicates that it is possible to update the NO, at a given temporal state, well below the time corresponding to a crank angle degree. The FPGA NO model was tested against measurement data collected from a Scania engine. The time needed to execute an iteration of the model was approximately 3 μs.},
  author       = {Muric, Kenan and Tunestål, Per and Stenlåås, Ola},
  booktitle    = {SAE international journal of engines},
  issn         = {1946-3936},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {246--256},
  publisher    = {Society of Automotive Engineers},
  title        = {A Fast Crank Angle Resolved Zero-Dimensional NOx Model Implemented on a Field-Programmable Gate Array},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-0344},
  doi          = {10.4271/2013-01-0344},
  volume       = {6},
  year         = {2013},
}