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Spatially resolved spectroscopy across stellar surfaces : III. Photospheric FeI lines across HD 189733A (K1 V)

Dravins, Dainis LU orcid ; Gustavsson, Martin and Ludwig, Hans Günter LU (2018) In Astronomy and Astrophysics 616.
Abstract

Context. Spectroscopy across spatially resolved stellar surfaces reveals spectral line profiles free from rotational broadening, whose gradual changes from disk center toward the stellar limb reflect an atmospheric fine structure that is possible to model by 3D hydrodynamics. Aims. Previous studies of photospheric spectral lines across stellar disks exist for the Sun and HD 209458 (G0 V) and are now extended to the planet-hosting HD 189733A to sample a cooler K-type star and explore the future potential of the method. Methods. During exoplanet transit, stellar surface portions successively become hidden and differential spectroscopy between various transit phases uncovers spectra of small surface segments temporarily hidden behind the... (More)

Context. Spectroscopy across spatially resolved stellar surfaces reveals spectral line profiles free from rotational broadening, whose gradual changes from disk center toward the stellar limb reflect an atmospheric fine structure that is possible to model by 3D hydrodynamics. Aims. Previous studies of photospheric spectral lines across stellar disks exist for the Sun and HD 209458 (G0 V) and are now extended to the planet-hosting HD 189733A to sample a cooler K-type star and explore the future potential of the method. Methods. During exoplanet transit, stellar surface portions successively become hidden and differential spectroscopy between various transit phases uncovers spectra of small surface segments temporarily hidden behind the planet. The method was elaborated in Paper I, in which observable signatures were predicted quantitatively from hydrodynamic simulations. Results. From observations of HD 189733A with the ESO HARPS spectrometer at λ/Δλ∼ 115 000, profiles for stronger and weaker FeI lines are retrieved at several center-to-limb positions, reaching adequate S/N after averaging over numerous similar lines. Conclusions. Retrieved line profile widths and depths are compared to synthetic ones from models with parameters bracketing those of the target star and are found to be consistent with 3D simulations. Center-to-limb changes strongly depend on the surface granulation structure and much greater line-width variation is predicted in hotter F-type stars with vigorous granulation than in cooler K-types. Such parameters, obtained from fits to full line profiles, are realistic to retrieve for brighter planet-hosting stars, while their hydrodynamic modeling offers previously unexplored diagnostics for stellar atmospheric fine structure and 3D line formation. Precise modeling may be required in searches for Earth-analog exoplanets around K-type stars, whose more tranquil surface granulation and lower ensuing microvariability may enable such detections.

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organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Line: profiles, Stars: atmospheres, Stars: individual: HD 189733A, Stars: solar-type, Techniques: spectroscopic
in
Astronomy and Astrophysics
volume
616
article number
A144
publisher
EDP Sciences
external identifiers
  • scopus:85053541411
ISSN
0004-6361
DOI
10.1051/0004-6361/201833013
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
6cd6a7c6-a2b8-4fda-a971-d56d2bb7b34c
date added to LUP
2018-10-17 15:24:18
date last changed
2021-09-22 04:14:34
@article{6cd6a7c6-a2b8-4fda-a971-d56d2bb7b34c,
  abstract     = {<p>Context. Spectroscopy across spatially resolved stellar surfaces reveals spectral line profiles free from rotational broadening, whose gradual changes from disk center toward the stellar limb reflect an atmospheric fine structure that is possible to model by 3D hydrodynamics. Aims. Previous studies of photospheric spectral lines across stellar disks exist for the Sun and HD 209458 (G0 V) and are now extended to the planet-hosting HD 189733A to sample a cooler K-type star and explore the future potential of the method. Methods. During exoplanet transit, stellar surface portions successively become hidden and differential spectroscopy between various transit phases uncovers spectra of small surface segments temporarily hidden behind the planet. The method was elaborated in Paper I, in which observable signatures were predicted quantitatively from hydrodynamic simulations. Results. From observations of HD 189733A with the ESO HARPS spectrometer at λ/Δλ∼ 115 000, profiles for stronger and weaker Fe<sub>I</sub> lines are retrieved at several center-to-limb positions, reaching adequate S/N after averaging over numerous similar lines. Conclusions. Retrieved line profile widths and depths are compared to synthetic ones from models with parameters bracketing those of the target star and are found to be consistent with 3D simulations. Center-to-limb changes strongly depend on the surface granulation structure and much greater line-width variation is predicted in hotter F-type stars with vigorous granulation than in cooler K-types. Such parameters, obtained from fits to full line profiles, are realistic to retrieve for brighter planet-hosting stars, while their hydrodynamic modeling offers previously unexplored diagnostics for stellar atmospheric fine structure and 3D line formation. Precise modeling may be required in searches for Earth-analog exoplanets around K-type stars, whose more tranquil surface granulation and lower ensuing microvariability may enable such detections.</p>},
  author       = {Dravins, Dainis and Gustavsson, Martin and Ludwig, Hans Günter},
  issn         = {0004-6361},
  language     = {eng},
  publisher    = {EDP Sciences},
  series       = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
  title        = {Spatially resolved spectroscopy across stellar surfaces : III. Photospheric Fe<sub>I</sub> lines across HD 189733A (K1 V)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201833013},
  doi          = {10.1051/0004-6361/201833013},
  volume       = {616},
  year         = {2018},
}