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Experimental and kinetic modelling investigation on NO, CO and NH3 emissions from NH3/CH4/air premixed flames

Filipe Ramos, C.; Rocha, Rodolfo C.; Oliveira, Pedro M.R.; Costa, Mário and Bai, Xue Song LU (2019) In Fuel 254.
Abstract

Ammonia (NH3) is regarded as one of the most viable alternatives to produce carbon-free energy. However, its low flammability and high NOx emissions associated with its combustion inhibit the implementation of pure NH3 as a fuel. Dual-fuel approaches with NH3 and more reactive fuels have been proposed; however, information on pollutant emissions is still scarce. The present work focuses on quantifying the gaseous pollutant emissions from the combustion of mixtures of NH3 and CH4 as a function of the equivalence ratio and amount of NH3 in the fuel mixture. A premixed laminar burner was fired with various mixtures of NH3/CH4 in air with... (More)

Ammonia (NH3) is regarded as one of the most viable alternatives to produce carbon-free energy. However, its low flammability and high NOx emissions associated with its combustion inhibit the implementation of pure NH3 as a fuel. Dual-fuel approaches with NH3 and more reactive fuels have been proposed; however, information on pollutant emissions is still scarce. The present work focuses on quantifying the gaseous pollutant emissions from the combustion of mixtures of NH3 and CH4 as a function of the equivalence ratio and amount of NH3 in the fuel mixture. A premixed laminar burner was fired with various mixtures of NH3/CH4 in air with equivalence ratios of 0.8, 0.9 and 1, and a fixed thermal input of 300 W. The NH3 molar fraction in the fuel mixture was varied from 0 (pure CH4) up to 0.7. Gas temperatures along the burner axis and emissions of NOx, CO and NH3 were measured for all conditions. The results were compared with kinetic simulations using recent chemical kinetic mechanism models. The experimental results showed that the NOx concentration initially increases as the fraction of NH3 in the fuel mixture rises up to 0.5, decreasing afterwards. Furthermore, NOx emissions decrease as the equivalence ratio is reduced towards fuel-lean conditions. CO and NH3 emissions are fairly low indicating complete combustion of CH4 and NH3. The chemical kinetic mechanisms considered showed fair agreement with the experimental trends, with the NOx and CO emissions being over-predicted for most conditions.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Ammonia, Emissions, Experimental, Kinetic simulations, Methane
in
Fuel
volume
254
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • scopus:85067856400
ISSN
0016-2361
DOI
10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115693
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
6f6d2d51-6a37-40b5-9d5b-48e0e104b848
date added to LUP
2019-07-04 12:47:35
date last changed
2019-07-30 05:05:57
@article{6f6d2d51-6a37-40b5-9d5b-48e0e104b848,
  abstract     = {<p>Ammonia (NH<sub>3</sub>) is regarded as one of the most viable alternatives to produce carbon-free energy. However, its low flammability and high NO<sub>x</sub> emissions associated with its combustion inhibit the implementation of pure NH<sub>3</sub> as a fuel. Dual-fuel approaches with NH<sub>3</sub> and more reactive fuels have been proposed; however, information on pollutant emissions is still scarce. The present work focuses on quantifying the gaseous pollutant emissions from the combustion of mixtures of NH<sub>3</sub> and CH<sub>4</sub> as a function of the equivalence ratio and amount of NH<sub>3</sub> in the fuel mixture. A premixed laminar burner was fired with various mixtures of NH<sub>3</sub>/CH<sub>4</sub> in air with equivalence ratios of 0.8, 0.9 and 1, and a fixed thermal input of 300 W. The NH<sub>3</sub> molar fraction in the fuel mixture was varied from 0 (pure CH<sub>4</sub>) up to 0.7. Gas temperatures along the burner axis and emissions of NO<sub>x</sub>, CO and NH<sub>3</sub> were measured for all conditions. The results were compared with kinetic simulations using recent chemical kinetic mechanism models. The experimental results showed that the NO<sub>x</sub> concentration initially increases as the fraction of NH<sub>3</sub> in the fuel mixture rises up to 0.5, decreasing afterwards. Furthermore, NO<sub>x</sub> emissions decrease as the equivalence ratio is reduced towards fuel-lean conditions. CO and NH<sub>3</sub> emissions are fairly low indicating complete combustion of CH<sub>4</sub> and NH<sub>3</sub>. The chemical kinetic mechanisms considered showed fair agreement with the experimental trends, with the NO<sub>x</sub> and CO emissions being over-predicted for most conditions.</p>},
  articleno    = {115693},
  author       = {Filipe Ramos, C. and Rocha, Rodolfo C. and Oliveira, Pedro M.R. and Costa, Mário and Bai, Xue Song},
  issn         = {0016-2361},
  keyword      = {Ammonia,Emissions,Experimental,Kinetic simulations,Methane},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {10},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Fuel},
  title        = {Experimental and kinetic modelling investigation on NO, CO and NH<sub>3</sub> emissions from NH<sub>3</sub>/CH<sub>4</sub>/air premixed flames},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115693},
  volume       = {254},
  year         = {2019},
}