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Smoking, low formal level of education, alcohol consumption, and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis.

Bergström, Ulf LU ; Jacobsson, Lth ; Nilsson, J-Å ; Wirfält, Elisabet LU and Turesson, Carl LU (2013) In Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 42(2). p.123-130
Abstract
Objective: Suggested predictors of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) include environmental exposure, such as smoking. Our purpose was to investigate potential predictors of RA in a nested case-control study based on a prospective cohort. Method: Between 1991 and 1996, 30 447 persons were included in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS). Individuals who developed RA after inclusion up to 31 December 2004 were identified by linking the database to different registers. Four controls were selected for every case. Data on lifestyle factors were collected in the MDCS. Results: We identified 172 incident cases of RA [36 men/136 women, mean age at diagnosis 63 years, 69% rheumatoid factor (RF) positive, median time from inclusion to diagnosis 5 (range... (More)
Objective: Suggested predictors of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) include environmental exposure, such as smoking. Our purpose was to investigate potential predictors of RA in a nested case-control study based on a prospective cohort. Method: Between 1991 and 1996, 30 447 persons were included in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS). Individuals who developed RA after inclusion up to 31 December 2004 were identified by linking the database to different registers. Four controls were selected for every case. Data on lifestyle factors were collected in the MDCS. Results: We identified 172 incident cases of RA [36 men/136 women, mean age at diagnosis 63 years, 69% rheumatoid factor (RF) positive, median time from inclusion to diagnosis 5 (range 1-13) years]. In bivariate analyses, baseline smoking [odds ratio (OR) 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-3.12] and a low level of formal education (i.e. ≤ 8 years; OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.18-4.93 vs. University degree) predicted subsequent development of RA. Infrequent baseline alcohol consumption was a predictor of RA (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.91-6.30) compared to recent use (within the past month), and individuals with moderate baseline alcohol consumption (3.5-15.2 g/day vs. < 3.5 g/day) tended to have a reduced risk of RA (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.22-1.05) in multivariate analyses, adjusted for smoking and level of education. Conclusions: Smoking and a low level of formal education were found to be independent predictors of RA. Moderate alcohol consumption may also be associated with a reduced risk. (Less)
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; ; ; and
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
volume
42
issue
2
pages
123 - 130
publisher
Taylor & Francis
external identifiers
  • wos:000315417700007
  • pmid:23126587
  • scopus:84874477560
  • pmid:23126587
ISSN
1502-7732
DOI
10.3109/03009742.2012.723744
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
73c5dd3f-01c9-49ea-8ea2-3143fe56d15c (old id 3219243)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23126587?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2016-04-01 09:56:58
date last changed
2020-09-30 01:07:04
@article{73c5dd3f-01c9-49ea-8ea2-3143fe56d15c,
  abstract     = {Objective: Suggested predictors of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) include environmental exposure, such as smoking. Our purpose was to investigate potential predictors of RA in a nested case-control study based on a prospective cohort. Method: Between 1991 and 1996, 30 447 persons were included in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS). Individuals who developed RA after inclusion up to 31 December 2004 were identified by linking the database to different registers. Four controls were selected for every case. Data on lifestyle factors were collected in the MDCS. Results: We identified 172 incident cases of RA [36 men/136 women, mean age at diagnosis 63 years, 69% rheumatoid factor (RF) positive, median time from inclusion to diagnosis 5 (range 1-13) years]. In bivariate analyses, baseline smoking [odds ratio (OR) 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-3.12] and a low level of formal education (i.e. ≤ 8 years; OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.18-4.93 vs. University degree) predicted subsequent development of RA. Infrequent baseline alcohol consumption was a predictor of RA (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.91-6.30) compared to recent use (within the past month), and individuals with moderate baseline alcohol consumption (3.5-15.2 g/day vs. &lt; 3.5 g/day) tended to have a reduced risk of RA (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.22-1.05) in multivariate analyses, adjusted for smoking and level of education. Conclusions: Smoking and a low level of formal education were found to be independent predictors of RA. Moderate alcohol consumption may also be associated with a reduced risk.},
  author       = {Bergström, Ulf and Jacobsson, Lth and Nilsson, J-Å and Wirfält, Elisabet and Turesson, Carl},
  issn         = {1502-7732},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {123--130},
  publisher    = {Taylor & Francis},
  series       = {Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology},
  title        = {Smoking, low formal level of education, alcohol consumption, and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/03009742.2012.723744},
  doi          = {10.3109/03009742.2012.723744},
  volume       = {42},
  year         = {2013},
}