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Size-Resolved Respiratory Tract Deposition of Fine and Ultrafine Hydrophobic and Hygroscopic Aerosol Particles during Rest and Exercise

Löndahl, Jakob LU ; Massling, Andreas; Pagels, Joakim LU ; Swietlicki, Erik LU ; Vaclavik, Elvira and Loft, Steffen (2007) In Inhalation Toxicology 19(2). p.109-116
Abstract
Airborne ultrafine particles (diameter <100 nm) are ubiquitous in the environment and have been associated with adverse health effects. The respiratory-tract deposition of these particles is fundamentally influenced by their hygroscopicity: their ability to grow by condensation of water in the humid respiratory system. Ambient particles are typically hygroscopic, to varying degrees. This article investigates the influence of hygroscopicity, exercise level, gender, and intersubject variability on size-dependent deposition of fine and ultrafine particles during spontaneous breathing. Using a novel and well-characterized setup, respiratory-tract deposition in the range 12-320 nm has been measured for 29 healthy adults (20 men, 9 women).... (More)
Airborne ultrafine particles (diameter <100 nm) are ubiquitous in the environment and have been associated with adverse health effects. The respiratory-tract deposition of these particles is fundamentally influenced by their hygroscopicity: their ability to grow by condensation of water in the humid respiratory system. Ambient particles are typically hygroscopic, to varying degrees. This article investigates the influence of hygroscopicity, exercise level, gender, and intersubject variability on size-dependent deposition of fine and ultrafine particles during spontaneous breathing. Using a novel and well-characterized setup, respiratory-tract deposition in the range 12-320 nm has been measured for 29 healthy adults (20 men, 9 women). Each subject completed four sessions: rest and light exercise on an ergometer bicycle while inhaling both hydrophobic (diethylhexylsebacate) and hygroscopic (NaCl) particles. The deposited fraction (DF) based on dry diameters was two to four times higher for the hydrophobic ultrafine particles than for the hygroscopic. The DF of hygroscopic ultrafine particles could be estimated by calculating their equilibrium size at 99.5% relative humidity. The differences in average DF due to exercise level and gender were essentially less than 0.03. However, the minute ventilation increased fourfold during exercise and was 18-46% higher for the men than for the women. Consequently the deposited dose of particles was fourfold higher during exercise and considerably increased for the male subjects. Some individuals consistently had a high DF in all four sessions. As an example, the results show that an average person exposed to 100-nm hydrophobic particles during exercise will receive a 16 times higher dose than a relaxed person exposed to an equal amount of hygroscopic (NaCl) particles. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Inhalation Toxicology
volume
19
issue
2
pages
109 - 116
publisher
Taylor & Francis
external identifiers
  • wos:000242852300001
  • scopus:33845759282
ISSN
0895-8378
DOI
10.1080/08958370601051677
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
44a21848-72fd-4236-a798-677b6333f485 (old id 743567)
date added to LUP
2007-12-12 18:47:11
date last changed
2017-09-10 04:31:50
@article{44a21848-72fd-4236-a798-677b6333f485,
  abstract     = {Airborne ultrafine particles (diameter &lt;100 nm) are ubiquitous in the environment and have been associated with adverse health effects. The respiratory-tract deposition of these particles is fundamentally influenced by their hygroscopicity: their ability to grow by condensation of water in the humid respiratory system. Ambient particles are typically hygroscopic, to varying degrees. This article investigates the influence of hygroscopicity, exercise level, gender, and intersubject variability on size-dependent deposition of fine and ultrafine particles during spontaneous breathing. Using a novel and well-characterized setup, respiratory-tract deposition in the range 12-320 nm has been measured for 29 healthy adults (20 men, 9 women). Each subject completed four sessions: rest and light exercise on an ergometer bicycle while inhaling both hydrophobic (diethylhexylsebacate) and hygroscopic (NaCl) particles. The deposited fraction (DF) based on dry diameters was two to four times higher for the hydrophobic ultrafine particles than for the hygroscopic. The DF of hygroscopic ultrafine particles could be estimated by calculating their equilibrium size at 99.5% relative humidity. The differences in average DF due to exercise level and gender were essentially less than 0.03. However, the minute ventilation increased fourfold during exercise and was 18-46% higher for the men than for the women. Consequently the deposited dose of particles was fourfold higher during exercise and considerably increased for the male subjects. Some individuals consistently had a high DF in all four sessions. As an example, the results show that an average person exposed to 100-nm hydrophobic particles during exercise will receive a 16 times higher dose than a relaxed person exposed to an equal amount of hygroscopic (NaCl) particles.},
  author       = {Löndahl, Jakob and Massling, Andreas and Pagels, Joakim and Swietlicki, Erik and Vaclavik, Elvira and Loft, Steffen},
  issn         = {0895-8378},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {109--116},
  publisher    = {Taylor & Francis},
  series       = {Inhalation Toxicology},
  title        = {Size-Resolved Respiratory Tract Deposition of Fine and Ultrafine Hydrophobic and Hygroscopic Aerosol Particles during Rest and Exercise},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08958370601051677},
  volume       = {19},
  year         = {2007},
}