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Burnout among school teachers : quantitative and qualitative results from a follow-up study in southern Sweden

Arvidsson, Inger LU ; Leo, Ulf LU ; Larsson, Anna LU ; Håkansson, Carita LU ; Persson, Roger LU and Björk, Jonas LU (2019) In BMC Public Health 19.
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Teachers are at high risk of stress-related disorders. This longitudinal study aimed to (a) identify which occupational, sociodemographic and life-style factors and self-efficacy at baseline that were of importance for burnout, (b) explore associations between changes in the studied factors versus changes in burnout, and (c) by interviews increase the understanding of perceived job demands among teachers.

METHODS: A cohort of 310 Swedish teachers in school-years 4-9 responded to a questionnaire of occupational, sociodemographic and life-style factors, self-efficacy and burnout, at baseline and at follow-up (mean 30 months later). A combined measure with four levels of burnout was crafted, based on exhaustion, cynicism... (More)

BACKGROUND: Teachers are at high risk of stress-related disorders. This longitudinal study aimed to (a) identify which occupational, sociodemographic and life-style factors and self-efficacy at baseline that were of importance for burnout, (b) explore associations between changes in the studied factors versus changes in burnout, and (c) by interviews increase the understanding of perceived job demands among teachers.

METHODS: A cohort of 310 Swedish teachers in school-years 4-9 responded to a questionnaire of occupational, sociodemographic and life-style factors, self-efficacy and burnout, at baseline and at follow-up (mean 30 months later). A combined measure with four levels of burnout was crafted, based on exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey). Quantitative data were analysed with multiple ordinal regression, and qualitative data were analysed with content analysis of interview responses from a subgroup of the teachers (n = 81).

RESULTS: The occurrence of high burnout (level 2 and 3 combined) were similar at baseline and follow-up (14% vs. 15%). However, many teachers fluctuated between the levels of burnout (28% increased and 24% decreased). Burnout at baseline was of importance for change of work or being off duty at follow up. In the multi-exposure model, low self-efficacy [OR 0.42; CI 0.26-0.68] and high job demands [OR 1.97; CI 1.02-3.8] were the strongest explanatory variables. Low self-efficacy remained as the strongest explanatory factor after adjustment for burnout at baseline. Increased job demands during follow-up was associated with an increased level of burnout [OR 3.41; CI 1.73-6.69], whereas increased decision latitude was associated with a decreased level of burnout [OR 0.51; CI 0.30-0.87]. Two major categories of demands emerged in the qualitative analysis; i.e. too high workload and a sense of inadequacy.

CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of teachers showed signs of burnout at both occasions. Low self-efficacy and high job demands was of importance for burnout, and changes in burnout was further associated with changes in decision latitude. The results points to the need of actions on individual, organizational and a societal levels.

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author
organization
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Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
BMC Public Health
volume
19
publisher
BioMed Central
external identifiers
  • scopus:85066948757
ISSN
1471-2458
DOI
10.1186/s12889-019-6972-1
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
78309118-11a1-4eca-9179-9698f78bf071
date added to LUP
2019-06-03 14:49:26
date last changed
2019-09-03 03:00:21
@article{78309118-11a1-4eca-9179-9698f78bf071,
  abstract     = {<p>BACKGROUND: Teachers are at high risk of stress-related disorders. This longitudinal study aimed to (a) identify which occupational, sociodemographic and life-style factors and self-efficacy at baseline that were of importance for burnout, (b) explore associations between changes in the studied factors versus changes in burnout, and (c) by interviews increase the understanding of perceived job demands among teachers.</p><p>METHODS: A cohort of 310 Swedish teachers in school-years 4-9 responded to a questionnaire of occupational, sociodemographic and life-style factors, self-efficacy and burnout, at baseline and at follow-up (mean 30 months later). A combined measure with four levels of burnout was crafted, based on exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey). Quantitative data were analysed with multiple ordinal regression, and qualitative data were analysed with content analysis of interview responses from a subgroup of the teachers (n = 81).</p><p>RESULTS: The occurrence of high burnout (level 2 and 3 combined) were similar at baseline and follow-up (14% vs. 15%). However, many teachers fluctuated between the levels of burnout (28% increased and 24% decreased). Burnout at baseline was of importance for change of work or being off duty at follow up. In the multi-exposure model, low self-efficacy [OR 0.42; CI 0.26-0.68] and high job demands [OR 1.97; CI 1.02-3.8] were the strongest explanatory variables. Low self-efficacy remained as the strongest explanatory factor after adjustment for burnout at baseline. Increased job demands during follow-up was associated with an increased level of burnout [OR 3.41; CI 1.73-6.69], whereas increased decision latitude was associated with a decreased level of burnout [OR 0.51; CI 0.30-0.87]. Two major categories of demands emerged in the qualitative analysis; i.e. too high workload and a sense of inadequacy.</p><p>CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of teachers showed signs of burnout at both occasions. Low self-efficacy and high job demands was of importance for burnout, and changes in burnout was further associated with changes in decision latitude. The results points to the need of actions on individual, organizational and a societal levels.</p>},
  articleno    = {655},
  author       = {Arvidsson, Inger and Leo, Ulf and Larsson, Anna and Håkansson, Carita and Persson, Roger and Björk, Jonas},
  issn         = {1471-2458},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {05},
  publisher    = {BioMed Central},
  series       = {BMC Public Health},
  title        = {Burnout among school teachers : quantitative and qualitative results from a follow-up study in southern Sweden},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6972-1},
  volume       = {19},
  year         = {2019},
}