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Aerococcus: an increasingly acknowledged human pathogen.

Rasmussen, Magnus LU (2016) In Clinical Microbiology and Infection 22(1). p.22-27
Abstract
Aerococci have often been misidentified as streptococci in microbiology laboratories, leading to an underestimation of these bacteria as causes of human infections. An increased awareness of aerococci and the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), has lead to an increased isolation of Aerococcus urinae and Aerococcus sanguinicola from human urine and blood. The two species are found in human urine and can cause urinary tract infections (UTI). A. urinae can, in older males with underlying urinary tract conditions, cause invasive infections such as urosepsis or infective endocarditis (IE). The prognosis of invasive aerococcal infections appears to be relatively favourable... (More)
Aerococci have often been misidentified as streptococci in microbiology laboratories, leading to an underestimation of these bacteria as causes of human infections. An increased awareness of aerococci and the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), has lead to an increased isolation of Aerococcus urinae and Aerococcus sanguinicola from human urine and blood. The two species are found in human urine and can cause urinary tract infections (UTI). A. urinae can, in older males with underlying urinary tract conditions, cause invasive infections such as urosepsis or infective endocarditis (IE). The prognosis of invasive aerococcal infections appears to be relatively favourable despite the old age of patients and their many comorbidities. Though clinical breakpoints are still not in place, aerococci seem to be sensitive to penicillins, carbapenems, and vancomycin. There is synergy between penicillin and aminoglycosides against some A. urinae isolates and this combination is often used in aerococcal IE. The treatment of complicated aerococcal UTI is not obvious as many isolates are resistant to fluoroquinolons. In addition, A. urinae is resistant to sulphametoxazole, and there are methodological problems in the determination of trimethoprim sensitivity. In complicated UTI, ampicillin is probably a safe treatment option, whereas nitrofurantoin is likely effective in uncomplicated UTI. Treatment studies in aerococcal infections are needed as is a better understanding of the natural niches for aerococci and the pathogenesis and clinical course of aerococcal infections. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Clinical Microbiology and Infection
volume
22
issue
1
pages
22 - 27
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • pmid:26454061
  • wos:000368024800008
  • scopus:84959300158
ISSN
1469-0691
DOI
10.1016/j.cmi.2015.09.026
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
530b05cd-799d-4da2-8720-208b114f1131 (old id 8155495)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26454061?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2015-11-03 11:30:10
date last changed
2017-11-19 03:19:54
@article{530b05cd-799d-4da2-8720-208b114f1131,
  abstract     = {Aerococci have often been misidentified as streptococci in microbiology laboratories, leading to an underestimation of these bacteria as causes of human infections. An increased awareness of aerococci and the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), has lead to an increased isolation of Aerococcus urinae and Aerococcus sanguinicola from human urine and blood. The two species are found in human urine and can cause urinary tract infections (UTI). A. urinae can, in older males with underlying urinary tract conditions, cause invasive infections such as urosepsis or infective endocarditis (IE). The prognosis of invasive aerococcal infections appears to be relatively favourable despite the old age of patients and their many comorbidities. Though clinical breakpoints are still not in place, aerococci seem to be sensitive to penicillins, carbapenems, and vancomycin. There is synergy between penicillin and aminoglycosides against some A. urinae isolates and this combination is often used in aerococcal IE. The treatment of complicated aerococcal UTI is not obvious as many isolates are resistant to fluoroquinolons. In addition, A. urinae is resistant to sulphametoxazole, and there are methodological problems in the determination of trimethoprim sensitivity. In complicated UTI, ampicillin is probably a safe treatment option, whereas nitrofurantoin is likely effective in uncomplicated UTI. Treatment studies in aerococcal infections are needed as is a better understanding of the natural niches for aerococci and the pathogenesis and clinical course of aerococcal infections.},
  author       = {Rasmussen, Magnus},
  issn         = {1469-0691},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {22--27},
  publisher    = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  series       = {Clinical Microbiology and Infection},
  title        = {Aerococcus: an increasingly acknowledged human pathogen.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2015.09.026},
  volume       = {22},
  year         = {2016},
}