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Influence of genetically modified organisms on agro-ecosystem processes

Kolseth, Anna-Karin; D'Hertefeldt, Tina LU ; Emmerich, Maren; Forabosco, Flavio; Marklund, Stefan; Cheeke, Tanya E.; Hallin, Sara and Weih, Martin (2015) In Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 214. p.96-106
Abstract
Biotechnology offers extensive possibilities to incorporate new traits into organisms. Genetically modified (GM) traits relevant for agro-ecosystems include traits such as pest resistance and herbicide tolerance in crop plants, increased growth rate in fish and livestock, and enhanced nitrogen-fixation capabilities of soil microbes. In this review, we evaluated the direct and indirect trait-specific effects of GM plants, microbes, and animals on ecosystem processes and found that most of the effects of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) on ecosystem processes are indirect and are the result of associated changes in management strategy rather than a direct effect of the GMOs. Conflicting results on the performance and effects of GMOs are... (More)
Biotechnology offers extensive possibilities to incorporate new traits into organisms. Genetically modified (GM) traits relevant for agro-ecosystems include traits such as pest resistance and herbicide tolerance in crop plants, increased growth rate in fish and livestock, and enhanced nitrogen-fixation capabilities of soil microbes. In this review, we evaluated the direct and indirect trait-specific effects of GM plants, microbes, and animals on ecosystem processes and found that most of the effects of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) on ecosystem processes are indirect and are the result of associated changes in management strategy rather than a direct effect of the GMOs. Conflicting results on the performance and effects of GMOs are frequently reported, especially regarding crop yield and impacts on soil organisms. This is partly because methods with different levels of resolution have been used in different ecological contexts. Overall, there is little evidence that the effects of GM traits on ecosystem processes act with different mechanisms from those of traits modified using conventional methods. However, little is known about trait-specific effects of GMOs on ecosystem processes even though GMOs have been used for more than three decades. In particular, studies linking genetically modified traits to ecosystem processes at longer time scales are rare, but needed for evaluating trait effects, especially in an evolutionary context. In addition, biotechnology may provide a unique tool for gaining insights into the links between traits and ecosystem processes when integrated into basic ecological research. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Agriculture, Biotechnology, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Ecosystem, processes, Ecosystem services, Herbicide-tolerant (HT)
in
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
volume
214
pages
96 - 106
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • wos:000362608400010
  • scopus:84941056730
ISSN
1873-2305
DOI
10.1016/j.agee.2015.08.021
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
75074c6d-9bce-4029-bedf-2e5f49a8a0e3 (old id 8206262)
date added to LUP
2015-11-26 14:40:57
date last changed
2017-06-25 03:59:50
@article{75074c6d-9bce-4029-bedf-2e5f49a8a0e3,
  abstract     = {Biotechnology offers extensive possibilities to incorporate new traits into organisms. Genetically modified (GM) traits relevant for agro-ecosystems include traits such as pest resistance and herbicide tolerance in crop plants, increased growth rate in fish and livestock, and enhanced nitrogen-fixation capabilities of soil microbes. In this review, we evaluated the direct and indirect trait-specific effects of GM plants, microbes, and animals on ecosystem processes and found that most of the effects of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) on ecosystem processes are indirect and are the result of associated changes in management strategy rather than a direct effect of the GMOs. Conflicting results on the performance and effects of GMOs are frequently reported, especially regarding crop yield and impacts on soil organisms. This is partly because methods with different levels of resolution have been used in different ecological contexts. Overall, there is little evidence that the effects of GM traits on ecosystem processes act with different mechanisms from those of traits modified using conventional methods. However, little is known about trait-specific effects of GMOs on ecosystem processes even though GMOs have been used for more than three decades. In particular, studies linking genetically modified traits to ecosystem processes at longer time scales are rare, but needed for evaluating trait effects, especially in an evolutionary context. In addition, biotechnology may provide a unique tool for gaining insights into the links between traits and ecosystem processes when integrated into basic ecological research. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
  author       = {Kolseth, Anna-Karin and D'Hertefeldt, Tina and Emmerich, Maren and Forabosco, Flavio and Marklund, Stefan and Cheeke, Tanya E. and Hallin, Sara and Weih, Martin},
  issn         = {1873-2305},
  keyword      = {Agriculture,Biotechnology,Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt),Ecosystem,processes,Ecosystem services,Herbicide-tolerant (HT)},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {96--106},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment},
  title        = {Influence of genetically modified organisms on agro-ecosystem processes},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2015.08.021},
  volume       = {214},
  year         = {2015},
}