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Radioactivity Exploration from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Part 2. Ymer-80 Expedition

Persson, Bertil R LU ; Holm, Elis LU ; Carlsson, Kjell-Åke; Samuelsson, Christer LU ; Hallstadius, Lars; Hedvall, Robert and Forkman, Bengt LU (2015) In Acta Scientiarum Lundensia 2015(003). p.1-20
Abstract
Abstract

Levels of natural radioactivity such as 222Rn (radon) and its long-lived daughters 210Pb and 210Po were

measured. The radon gas was trapped on cooled charcoal filters and the long-lived daughter products

sampled on fibre filters on a daily basis. In addition, short-lived progenies were followed continuously

on the filters in order to achieve a time resolution of about one hour. The average 222Rn concentration in

air measured during the Ymer-80 expedition in samples north of latitude 78.8 °N, was 33 ± 4 (one

standard error) mBq.m-3 during Leg 1 (July-Aug.) , and 105.3 ± 8.3 mBq.m-3 during leg 2 (Aug-Sept.).

During a two-week period of persistent polar winds, the... (More)
Abstract

Levels of natural radioactivity such as 222Rn (radon) and its long-lived daughters 210Pb and 210Po were

measured. The radon gas was trapped on cooled charcoal filters and the long-lived daughter products

sampled on fibre filters on a daily basis. In addition, short-lived progenies were followed continuously

on the filters in order to achieve a time resolution of about one hour. The average 222Rn concentration in

air measured during the Ymer-80 expedition in samples north of latitude 78.8 °N, was 33 ± 4 (one

standard error) mBq.m-3 during Leg 1 (July-Aug.) , and 105.3 ± 8.3 mBq.m-3 during leg 2 (Aug-Sept.).

During a two-week period of persistent polar winds, the mean radon concentration decreased to 19± 5

mBq.m-3.

During July, August and September, the monthly average concentrations of 210Pb in air at positions

north of 75 °N latitude were 31 ± 15, 89 ± 61 and 105± 57 μBq.m-3 respectively with a the grand average

for all 3 months of 75 ± 28 μBq.m-3.

An extensive radiochemistry program was also established to measure 134+137Cs and the trans-

uranium elements 238+239+240Pu and 241Am in water, sediment and biota.

The concentration of 137Cs in surface seawater along the Norwegian coast was quite constant about

157±7 Bq.m-3. At a latitude about 72 oN it stat do decrease exponentially at a rate of 0.43 deg.-1 to about

20 ± 10 Bq.m-3 above 78 oN.

The results of 137Cs in sediments indicate that the total integrated area-content of 137Cs in a 1000 m

water-column and sediment is about 12 kBq.m-2.

In biota, the highest activity concentration of 137Cs about 1000 Bq/kgdwt was found in lichens. The

activity concentration of 137Cs in polar bears was about 10 Bq/kgdwt, in seals about 1 Bq/kgdwt, and in

birds about 1-7 Bq/kgdwt. The activity-concentration of 137Cs in Fucus and Laminaria was about 1-2

Bq/kgdwt, and the algae/sea-water activity-concentration ratio was about 75.

The distribution of the trans-uranium element 239+240Pu in sea water decrease from 14 to 10

mBq.m-3 up to 73°N but increase again to 17 mBq.m-3 at high latitudes while 137Cs decrease.

The average 241Am/ 239+240Pu activity ratio was found to be 0.13 ±0.04 (2 S.E), of 31 samples with

the range 0.04 - 0.32 in surface water,

Deep-water samples have been sampled at latitudes around 80.4 ±1.4 °N and along longitudes 2°

W – 45.5 °E. The results of the salinity and activity concentration of 137Cs and 239+240Pu with depth of

water are indicate an exponential decrease with depth of both 137Cs and 239+240Pu.

In conclusion, about 25% of 137Cs present in the Arctic water and sediments originates from fall-

out specific to the area. Another 25% originates from mixing with Atlantic-water from latitudes with

higher fall-out. The remaining 50% might originate from European reprocessing facilities.

The levels of 241Am in the Svalbard area originate from in situ build-up due to the decay of 241Pu. (Less)
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Contribution to journal
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published
subject
keywords
Ymer-80, air, water, sedimen, biota, 222Rn (radon), 210Pb, 210Po, 137Cs, 239+240Pu, 241Am
in
Acta Scientiarum Lundensia
volume
2015
issue
003
pages
1 - 20
publisher
Bertil RR Persson, Medical Radiation Physics, 22185 Lund, Sweden
ISSN
1651-5013
DOI
10.13140/RG.2.1.3542.2164
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
db375b30-8f1c-4268-b330-66798083c237 (old id 8498165)
alternative location
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bertil_Persson
date added to LUP
2016-01-02 12:43:09
date last changed
2016-05-17 09:59:21
@article{db375b30-8f1c-4268-b330-66798083c237,
  abstract     = {Abstract<br/><br>
Levels of natural radioactivity such as 222Rn (radon) and its long-lived daughters 210Pb and 210Po were <br/><br>
measured. The radon gas was trapped on cooled charcoal filters and the long-lived daughter products <br/><br>
sampled on fibre filters on a daily basis. In addition, short-lived progenies were followed continuously <br/><br>
on the filters in order to achieve a time resolution of about one hour. The average 222Rn concentration in <br/><br>
air measured during the Ymer-80 expedition in samples north of latitude 78.8 °N, was 33 ± 4 (one <br/><br>
standard error) mBq.m-3 during Leg 1 (July-Aug.) , and 105.3 ± 8.3 mBq.m-3 during leg 2 (Aug-Sept.). <br/><br>
During a two-week period of persistent polar winds, the mean radon concentration decreased to 19± 5 <br/><br>
mBq.m-3. <br/><br>
During July, August and September, the monthly average concentrations of 210Pb in air at positions <br/><br>
north of 75 °N latitude were 31 ± 15, 89 ± 61 and 105± 57 μBq.m-3 respectively with a the grand average <br/><br>
for all 3 months of 75 ± 28 μBq.m-3. <br/><br>
An extensive radiochemistry program was also established to measure 134+137Cs and the trans-<br/><br>
uranium elements 238+239+240Pu and 241Am in water, sediment and biota.<br/><br>
The concentration of 137Cs in surface seawater along the Norwegian coast was quite constant about <br/><br>
157±7 Bq.m-3. At a latitude about 72 oN it stat do decrease exponentially at a rate of 0.43 deg.-1 to about <br/><br>
20 ± 10 Bq.m-3 above 78 oN.<br/><br>
The results of 137Cs in sediments indicate that the total integrated area-content of 137Cs in a 1000 m <br/><br>
water-column and sediment is about 12 kBq.m-2. <br/><br>
In biota, the highest activity concentration of 137Cs about 1000 Bq/kgdwt was found in lichens. The <br/><br>
activity concentration of 137Cs in polar bears was about 10 Bq/kgdwt, in seals about 1 Bq/kgdwt, and in <br/><br>
birds about 1-7 Bq/kgdwt. The activity-concentration of 137Cs in Fucus and Laminaria was about 1-2 <br/><br>
Bq/kgdwt, and the algae/sea-water activity-concentration ratio was about 75. <br/><br>
The distribution of the trans-uranium element 239+240Pu in sea water decrease from 14 to 10 <br/><br>
mBq.m-3 up to 73°N but increase again to 17 mBq.m-3 at high latitudes while 137Cs decrease.<br/><br>
The average 241Am/ 239+240Pu activity ratio was found to be 0.13 ±0.04 (2 S.E), of 31 samples with <br/><br>
the range 0.04 - 0.32 in surface water,<br/><br>
Deep-water samples have been sampled at latitudes around 80.4 ±1.4 °N and along longitudes 2°<br/><br>
W – 45.5 °E. The results of the salinity and activity concentration of 137Cs and 239+240Pu with depth of <br/><br>
water are indicate an exponential decrease with depth of both 137Cs and 239+240Pu.<br/><br>
In conclusion, about 25% of 137Cs present in the Arctic water and sediments originates from fall-<br/><br>
out specific to the area. Another 25% originates from mixing with Atlantic-water from latitudes with <br/><br>
higher fall-out. The remaining 50% might originate from European reprocessing facilities.<br/><br>
The levels of 241Am in the Svalbard area originate from in situ build-up due to the decay of 241Pu.},
  author       = {Persson, Bertil R and Holm, Elis and Carlsson, Kjell-Åke and Samuelsson, Christer and Hallstadius, Lars and Hedvall, Robert and Forkman, Bengt},
  issn         = {1651-5013},
  keyword      = {Ymer-80,air,water,sedimen,biota,222Rn (radon),210Pb,210Po,137Cs,239+240Pu,241Am},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {003},
  pages        = {1--20},
  publisher    = {Bertil RR Persson, Medical Radiation Physics, 22185 Lund, Sweden},
  series       = {Acta Scientiarum Lundensia},
  title        = {Radioactivity Exploration from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Part 2. Ymer-80 Expedition},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.3542.2164},
  volume       = {2015},
  year         = {2015},
}