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Radioactivity exploration from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Part 3. The SWEDARP expedition Oct 1988 – April 1989

Persson, Bertil R LU ; Holm, Elis LU ; Roos, Per LU ; Roos, Birgitta LU and Carlsson, Kjell Åke (2015) In Acta Scientiarum Lundensia 2015(004). p.1-17
Abstract
The Swedish Antarctic Research Expedition named “SWEDARP” was performed during October 1988 through April 1989. The aim of our project was to study the radioactivity in air and water from Gothenburg to the Antarctic.

Between Gothenburg and the Equator, the average activity concentration of 7Be in air was 4.3 ± 0.7 mBq/m3. The activity concentration of 7Be in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica varied between 1.3 and 1.7 with an average of 1.5 ± 0.8 mBq/m3.

The average activity concentration of 210Pb in air during autumn 1988 on the route Gothenburg- Montevideo was about 290±270 micro-Bq/m3 and on the return in spring 1989 it was about 230±140 micro-Bq/m3. At the Equator, the average activity concentration of 210Pb in... (More)
The Swedish Antarctic Research Expedition named “SWEDARP” was performed during October 1988 through April 1989. The aim of our project was to study the radioactivity in air and water from Gothenburg to the Antarctic.

Between Gothenburg and the Equator, the average activity concentration of 7Be in air was 4.3 ± 0.7 mBq/m3. The activity concentration of 7Be in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica varied between 1.3 and 1.7 with an average of 1.5 ± 0.8 mBq/m3.

The average activity concentration of 210Pb in air during autumn 1988 on the route Gothenburg- Montevideo was about 290±270 micro-Bq/m3 and on the return in spring 1989 it was about 230±140 micro-Bq/m3. At the Equator, the average activity concentration of 210Pb in November 1988 was about 630±170 and in April 1989 about 260±210 microBq/m3. In the South Atlantic down to Antarctica during February-March 1989, the activity concentration of 210Pb varied between 11 and 58 micro-Bq/m3.

The average activity concentration of 210Po in air during the route Gothenburg- Montevideo in 1988 was about 63±58, and on the return, it was about 60±44 The Swedish Antarctic Research Expedition named “SWEDARP” was performed during October 1988 through April 1989. The aim of our project was to study the radioactivity in air and water from Gothenburg to the Antarctic.

Between Gothenburg and the Equator, the average activity concentration of 7Be in air was 4.3 ± 0.7 mBq/m3. The activity concentration of 7Be in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica varied between 1.3 and 1.7 with an average of 1.5 ± 0.8 mBq/m3.

The average activity concentration of 210Pb in air during autumn 1988 on the route Gothenburg- Montevideo was about 290±270 micro-Bq/m3 and on the return in spring 1989 it was about 230±140 micro-Bq/m3. At the Equator, the average activity concentration of 210Pb in November 1988 was about 630±170 and in April 1989 about 260±210 microBq/m3. In the South Atlantic down to Antarctica during February-March 1989, the activity concentration of 210Pb varied between 11 and 58 micro-Bq/m3.

The average activity concentration of 210Po in air during the route Gothenburg- Montevideo in 1988 was about 63±58, and on the return, it was about 60±44 micro-Bq/m3. At the Equator, the average activity concentration in Nov 1988 was about 132±45, and in April 1989 about 70±60 micro-Bq/m3. The activity concentration of 210Po in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica during February-March 1989 varied between 6 and 14 micro-Bq/m3.

The inventory (Bq.m-2) of various deposited ratio nuclides, measured in moss, lichen, soil and lake sediments was: 280 ±110 for 210Pb (excess); 155 ± 95 for 137Cs, 4.6 ± 2.6 for 239+240Pu, 1.6 ± 1.0 for 241Am and, 0.95± 0.5 for 238Pu.

137Cs activity concentration (Bq.m-3) in surface waters samples along the route of the SWEDARP expedition was about 3 Bq.m-3 above 20 °N , decreased to about 2 Bq.m-3 between 20 °N and 40 °S where it decrease to about 1 Bq.m-3 , and at 55 °S (e) there is a further decrease to about 0.3 Bq.m-3. Radio-Caesium, which originates from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out in the late 1950's and the early 1960's shows a long residence time in surface waters of the North and South Atlantic Oceans with half-time, corrected for physical decay estimated to be more than bout 100 years. Concentration factor for 137Cs estimated to 15000 for fish in the Antarctic is much higher than the value of 500 given by The IAEA 1985. Concentration factors for MacroAlgea/Water, was found to be about 1800 in the Antarctic compared to 100 the Arctic.

The 239+240Pu activity concentrations in the surface water was about 8 mBq.m-3 in the latitude band 5°-25 °N , about 3 mBq.m-3 in the latitude band 25-5 °N; and about 1,5 mBq.m-3 in the latitude band 0 °S-60 °S. Plutonlum-238 activity was measured in a few water samples from the southern hemisphere with activity ratio of 238Pu to 239+240Pu in the range of 0.14-0.22. Plutonium isotopes 239+240Pu from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests has a low half-life of 7-8 years due to the higher affinity to sinking particles for Pu than Cs. In the southern hemisphere, 238Pu was found as the result of the 1964 burn-up of a satellite in the atmosphere over the Mozambique Channel.

The Average activity concentrations (Bq/kgdw,) of 137Cs are in flesh of seals 2.5, penguins 0.2 and, fish 2.5 in liver of seals 0.6 and penguins 0.7 and in kidneys of seals 0.5. The Average activity concentrations (Bq/kgdw) of 210Po are in flesh of seals 8, penguins 4 and, fish 7, in liver of seals 110 and penguins 43 and, fish 5, and in kidneys of seals 91 and of penguins 43. The Average activity concentrations (Bq/kgdw,) of 210Pb are in flesh of seals 0,3, penguins 0,2, and fish 0.6, in liver of seals 4 and penguins 1 and, fish 1, and in kidneys of seals 1 and of penguins 1. The Average activity concentration of 137Cs in samples of Krill is about 1.7 Bq/kgdw of 210Po and 210Pb are in samples of Amphipods, 87 and 1.4 Bq/kgdw respectively.

Radio-Caesium, which originates from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out in the late 1950's and the early 1960's shows a long residence time in surface waters of the North and South Atlantic Oceans with half-time, corrected for physical decay estimated to be more than bout 100 years.

Plutonium isotopes 239+240Pu from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests has a low half-life of 7-8 years due to the higher affinity to sinking particles for Pu than Cs. In the southern hemisphere, 238Pu was found as the result of the 1964 burn-up of a satellite in the atmosphere over the Mozambique Channel.Bq/m3. At the Equator, the average activity concentration in Nov 1988 was about 132±45, and in April 1989 about 70±60 micro-Bq/m3. The activity concentration of 210Po in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica during February-March 1989 varied between 6 and 14 micro-Bq/m3.

The inventory (Bq.m-2) of various deposited ratio nuclides, measured in moss, lichen, soil and lake sediments was: 280 ±110 for 210Pb (excess); 155 ± 95 for 137Cs, 4.6 ± 2.6 for 239+240Pu, 1.6 ± 1.0 for 241Am and, 0.95± 0.5 for 238Pu.

137Cs activity concentration (Bq.m-3) in surface waters samples along the route of the SWEDARP expedition was about 3 Bq.m-3 above 20 °N , decreased to about 2 Bq.m-3 between 20 °N and 40 °S where it decrease to about 1 Bq.m-3 , and at 55 °S (e) there is a further decrease to about 0.3 Bq.m-3. Radio-Caesium, which originates from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out in the late 1950's and the early 1960's shows a long residence time in surface waters of the North and South Atlantic Oceans with half-time, corrected for physical decay estimated to be more than bout 100 years. Concentration factor for 137Cs estimated to 15000 for fish in the Antarctic is much higher than the value of 500 given by The IAEA 1985. Concentration factors for MacroAlgea/Water, was found to be about 1800 in the Antarctic compared to 100 the Arctic.

The 239+240Pu activity concentrations in the surface water was about 8 mBq.m-3 in the latitude band 5°-25 °N , about 3 mBq.m-3 in the latitude band 25-5 °N; and about 1,5 mBq.m-3 in the latitude band 0 °S-60 °S. Plutonlum-238 activity was measured in a few water samples from the southern hemisphere with activity ratio of 238Pu to 239+240Pu in the range of 0.14-0.22. Plutonium isotopes 239+240Pu from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests has a low half-life of 7-8 years due to the higher affinity to sinking particles for Pu than Cs. In the southern hemisphere, 238Pu was found as the result of the 1964 burn-up of a satellite in the atmosphere over the Mozambique Channel.

The Average activity concentrations (Bq/kgdw,) of 137Cs are in flesh of seals 2.5, penguins 0.2 and, fish 2.5 in liver of seals 0.6 and penguins 0.7 and in kidneys of seals 0.5. The Average activity concentrations (Bq/kgdw) of 210Po are in flesh of seals 8, penguins 4 and, fish 7, in liver of seals 110 and penguins 43 and, fish 5, and in kidneys of seals 91 and of penguins 43. The Average activity concentrations (Bq/kgdw,) of 210Pb are in flesh of seals 0,3, penguins 0,2, and fish 0.6, in liver of seals 4 and penguins 1 and, fish 1, and in kidneys of seals 1 and of penguins 1. The Average activity concentration of 137Cs in samples of Krill is about 1.7 Bq/kgdw of 210Po and 210Pb are in samples of Amphipods, 87 and 1.4 Bq/kgdw respectively.

Radio-Caesium, which originates from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out in the late 1950's and the early 1960's shows a long residence time in surface waters of the North and South Atlantic Oceans with half-time, corrected for physical decay estimated to be more than bout 100 years.

Plutonium isotopes 239+240Pu from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests has a low half-life of 7-8 years due to the higher affinity to sinking particles for Pu than Cs. In the southern hemisphere, 238Pu was found as the result of the 1964 burn-up of a satellite in the atmosphere over the Mozambique Channel. (Less)
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keywords
Arctic, Antarctica, SWEDARP, Radioactivity, 7Be, 137Cs, 210Pb, 210Po, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Am
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Acta Scientiarum Lundensia
volume
2015
issue
004
pages
1 - 17
publisher
Bertil RR Persson, Medical Radiation Physics, 22185 Lund, Sweden
ISSN
1651-5013
DOI
10.13140/RG.2.1.4590.7921
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English
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8c5d699c-e1eb-4080-99e4-08643c6452c9 (old id 8499992)
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2016-01-08 13:18:34
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@article{8c5d699c-e1eb-4080-99e4-08643c6452c9,
  abstract     = {The Swedish Antarctic Research Expedition named “SWEDARP” was performed during October 1988 through April 1989. The aim of our project was to study the radioactivity in air and water from Gothenburg to the Antarctic.<br/><br>
Between Gothenburg and the Equator, the average activity concentration of 7Be in air was 4.3 ± 0.7 mBq/m3. The activity concentration of 7Be in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica varied between 1.3 and 1.7 with an average of 1.5 ± 0.8 mBq/m3. <br/><br>
The average activity concentration of 210Pb in air during autumn 1988 on the route Gothenburg- Montevideo was about 290±270 micro-Bq/m3 and on the return in spring 1989 it was about 230±140 micro-Bq/m3. At the Equator, the average activity concentration of 210Pb in November 1988 was about 630±170 and in April 1989 about 260±210 microBq/m3. In the South Atlantic down to Antarctica during February-March 1989, the activity concentration of 210Pb varied between 11 and 58 micro-Bq/m3. <br/><br>
The average activity concentration of 210Po in air during the route Gothenburg- Montevideo in 1988 was about 63±58, and on the return, it was about 60±44 The Swedish Antarctic Research Expedition named “SWEDARP” was performed during October 1988 through April 1989. The aim of our project was to study the radioactivity in air and water from Gothenburg to the Antarctic.<br/><br>
Between Gothenburg and the Equator, the average activity concentration of 7Be in air was 4.3 ± 0.7 mBq/m3. The activity concentration of 7Be in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica varied between 1.3 and 1.7 with an average of 1.5 ± 0.8 mBq/m3. <br/><br>
The average activity concentration of 210Pb in air during autumn 1988 on the route Gothenburg- Montevideo was about 290±270 micro-Bq/m3 and on the return in spring 1989 it was about 230±140 micro-Bq/m3. At the Equator, the average activity concentration of 210Pb in November 1988 was about 630±170 and in April 1989 about 260±210 microBq/m3. In the South Atlantic down to Antarctica during February-March 1989, the activity concentration of 210Pb varied between 11 and 58 micro-Bq/m3. <br/><br>
The average activity concentration of 210Po in air during the route Gothenburg- Montevideo in 1988 was about 63±58, and on the return, it was about 60±44 micro-Bq/m3. At the Equator, the average activity concentration in Nov 1988 was about 132±45, and in April 1989 about 70±60 micro-Bq/m3. The activity concentration of 210Po in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica during February-March 1989 varied between 6 and 14 micro-Bq/m3. <br/><br>
The inventory (Bq.m-2) of various deposited ratio nuclides, measured in moss, lichen, soil and lake sediments was: 280 ±110 for 210Pb (excess); 155 ± 95 for 137Cs, 4.6 ± 2.6 for 239+240Pu, 1.6 ± 1.0 for 241Am and, 0.95± 0.5 for 238Pu.<br/><br>
137Cs activity concentration (Bq.m-3) in surface waters samples along the route of the SWEDARP expedition was about 3 Bq.m-3 above 20 °N , decreased to about 2 Bq.m-3 between 20 °N and 40 °S where it decrease to about 1 Bq.m-3 , and at 55 °S (e) there is a further decrease to about 0.3 Bq.m-3. Radio-Caesium, which originates from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out in the late 1950's and the early 1960's shows a long residence time in surface waters of the North and South Atlantic Oceans with half-time, corrected for physical decay estimated to be more than bout 100 years. Concentration factor for 137Cs estimated to 15000 for fish in the Antarctic is much higher than the value of 500 given by The IAEA 1985. Concentration factors for MacroAlgea/Water, was found to be about 1800 in the Antarctic compared to 100 the Arctic.<br/><br>
 The 239+240Pu activity concentrations in the surface water was about 8 mBq.m-3 in the latitude band 5°-25 °N , about 3 mBq.m-3 in the latitude band 25-5 °N; and about 1,5 mBq.m-3 in the latitude band 0 °S-60 °S. Plutonlum-238 activity was measured in a few water samples from the southern hemisphere with activity ratio of 238Pu to 239+240Pu in the range of 0.14-0.22. Plutonium isotopes 239+240Pu from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests has a low half-life of 7-8 years due to the higher affinity to sinking particles for Pu than Cs. In the southern hemisphere, 238Pu was found as the result of the 1964 burn-up of a satellite in the atmosphere over the Mozambique Channel.<br/><br>
The Average activity concentrations (Bq/kgdw,) of 137Cs are in flesh of seals 2.5, penguins 0.2 and, fish 2.5 in liver of seals 0.6 and penguins 0.7 and in kidneys of seals 0.5. The Average activity concentrations (Bq/kgdw) of 210Po are in flesh of seals 8, penguins 4 and, fish 7, in liver of seals 110 and penguins 43 and, fish 5, and in kidneys of seals 91 and of penguins 43. The Average activity concentrations (Bq/kgdw,) of 210Pb are in flesh of seals 0,3, penguins 0,2, and fish 0.6, in liver of seals 4 and penguins 1 and, fish 1, and in kidneys of seals 1 and of penguins 1. The Average activity concentration of 137Cs in samples of Krill is about 1.7 Bq/kgdw of 210Po and 210Pb are in samples of Amphipods, 87 and 1.4 Bq/kgdw respectively.<br/><br>
Radio-Caesium, which originates from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out in the late 1950's and the early 1960's shows a long residence time in surface waters of the North and South Atlantic Oceans with half-time, corrected for physical decay estimated to be more than bout 100 years. <br/><br>
Plutonium isotopes 239+240Pu from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests has a low half-life of 7-8 years due to the higher affinity to sinking particles for Pu than Cs. In the southern hemisphere, 238Pu was found as the result of the 1964 burn-up of a satellite in the atmosphere over the Mozambique Channel.Bq/m3. At the Equator, the average activity concentration in Nov 1988 was about 132±45, and in April 1989 about 70±60 micro-Bq/m3. The activity concentration of 210Po in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica during February-March 1989 varied between 6 and 14 micro-Bq/m3. <br/><br>
The inventory (Bq.m-2) of various deposited ratio nuclides, measured in moss, lichen, soil and lake sediments was: 280 ±110 for 210Pb (excess); 155 ± 95 for 137Cs, 4.6 ± 2.6 for 239+240Pu, 1.6 ± 1.0 for 241Am and, 0.95± 0.5 for 238Pu.<br/><br>
137Cs activity concentration (Bq.m-3) in surface waters samples along the route of the SWEDARP expedition was about 3 Bq.m-3 above 20 °N , decreased to about 2 Bq.m-3 between 20 °N and 40 °S where it decrease to about 1 Bq.m-3 , and at 55 °S (e) there is a further decrease to about 0.3 Bq.m-3. Radio-Caesium, which originates from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out in the late 1950's and the early 1960's shows a long residence time in surface waters of the North and South Atlantic Oceans with half-time, corrected for physical decay estimated to be more than bout 100 years. Concentration factor for 137Cs estimated to 15000 for fish in the Antarctic is much higher than the value of 500 given by The IAEA 1985. Concentration factors for MacroAlgea/Water, was found to be about 1800 in the Antarctic compared to 100 the Arctic.<br/><br>
 The 239+240Pu activity concentrations in the surface water was about 8 mBq.m-3 in the latitude band 5°-25 °N , about 3 mBq.m-3 in the latitude band 25-5 °N; and about 1,5 mBq.m-3 in the latitude band 0 °S-60 °S. Plutonlum-238 activity was measured in a few water samples from the southern hemisphere with activity ratio of 238Pu to 239+240Pu in the range of 0.14-0.22. Plutonium isotopes 239+240Pu from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests has a low half-life of 7-8 years due to the higher affinity to sinking particles for Pu than Cs. In the southern hemisphere, 238Pu was found as the result of the 1964 burn-up of a satellite in the atmosphere over the Mozambique Channel.<br/><br>
The Average activity concentrations (Bq/kgdw,) of 137Cs are in flesh of seals 2.5, penguins 0.2 and, fish 2.5 in liver of seals 0.6 and penguins 0.7 and in kidneys of seals 0.5. The Average activity concentrations (Bq/kgdw) of 210Po are in flesh of seals 8, penguins 4 and, fish 7, in liver of seals 110 and penguins 43 and, fish 5, and in kidneys of seals 91 and of penguins 43. The Average activity concentrations (Bq/kgdw,) of 210Pb are in flesh of seals 0,3, penguins 0,2, and fish 0.6, in liver of seals 4 and penguins 1 and, fish 1, and in kidneys of seals 1 and of penguins 1. The Average activity concentration of 137Cs in samples of Krill is about 1.7 Bq/kgdw of 210Po and 210Pb are in samples of Amphipods, 87 and 1.4 Bq/kgdw respectively.<br/><br>
Radio-Caesium, which originates from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out in the late 1950's and the early 1960's shows a long residence time in surface waters of the North and South Atlantic Oceans with half-time, corrected for physical decay estimated to be more than bout 100 years. <br/><br>
Plutonium isotopes 239+240Pu from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests has a low half-life of 7-8 years due to the higher affinity to sinking particles for Pu than Cs. In the southern hemisphere, 238Pu was found as the result of the 1964 burn-up of a satellite in the atmosphere over the Mozambique Channel.},
  author       = {Persson, Bertil R and Holm, Elis and Roos, Per and Roos, Birgitta and Carlsson, Kjell Åke},
  issn         = {1651-5013},
  keyword      = {Arctic,Antarctica,SWEDARP,Radioactivity,7Be,137Cs,210Pb,210Po,238Pu,239Pu,240Pu,241Am},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {004},
  pages        = {1--17},
  publisher    = {Bertil RR Persson, Medical Radiation Physics, 22185 Lund, Sweden},
  series       = {Acta Scientiarum Lundensia},
  title        = {Radioactivity exploration from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Part 3. The SWEDARP expedition Oct 1988 – April 1989},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.4590.7921},
  volume       = {2015},
  year         = {2015},
}