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Safety Culture in Sea and Aviation Transport

Ek, Åsa LU (2006) 18.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

I forskningsarbetet som presenteras i denna avhandling har säkerhetskulturen studerats inom sjö- och flygtransportbranscherna med fokus på individers attityder och uppfattningar om säkerhetskulturen. En säkerhetskultur avspeglar de attityder, uppfattningar och värderingar som individer i en organisation delar när det gäller säkerheten. Säkerhetskulturen identifieras ofta vara grundläggande för en organisations förmåga att hantera säkerhetsrelaterade aspekter. Målsättningarna med forskningsarbetet har varit: att i praktiska sammanhang undersöka individers uppfattningar och bedömningar av nio aspekter av en säkerhetskultur vilka återfinns i litteraturen inom forskningsområdet; att få ökad kunskap... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

I forskningsarbetet som presenteras i denna avhandling har säkerhetskulturen studerats inom sjö- och flygtransportbranscherna med fokus på individers attityder och uppfattningar om säkerhetskulturen. En säkerhetskultur avspeglar de attityder, uppfattningar och värderingar som individer i en organisation delar när det gäller säkerheten. Säkerhetskulturen identifieras ofta vara grundläggande för en organisations förmåga att hantera säkerhetsrelaterade aspekter. Målsättningarna med forskningsarbetet har varit: att i praktiska sammanhang undersöka individers uppfattningar och bedömningar av nio aspekter av en säkerhetskultur vilka återfinns i litteraturen inom forskningsområdet; att få ökad kunskap om de nio säkerhetskulturaspekterna genom att genomföra jämförande studier i tre transportbranscher; att undersöka relationer mellan säkerhetskulturaspekterna och dimensioner i organisationsklimatet. Den säkerhetskulturansats som presenteras i avhandlingen fokuserar på gott organisatoriskt lärande och undersöker nio aspekter: Lärande, Rapporterande, Rättvisa, Flexibilitet, Kommunikation, Attityder till säkerhet, Säkerhetsrelaterade beteenden, Riskperception och Arbetssituation.



Studier genomfördes i följande branscher: inom en rampverksamhet på flygplats, inom passagerarsjöfart (sex fartyg) och inom flygtrafikledning (tre enheter). Säkerhetskulturen studerades genom att använda observationer, frågeformulärpaket, intervjuer och insamling av fakta. Totalt fyllde 949 subjekt i frågeformulärpaketet som innehöll nio frågeformulär (en för varje säkerhetskulturaspekt) och 80 intervjuer relaterade till säkerhetskulturen genomfördes. 719 subjekt fyllde i Ekvalls organisationsklimatfrågeformulär vilket delvis fokuserar på att mäta en organisations förmåga till innovation och förändring.



De nio frågeformulären som representerade de nio säkerhetskulturaspekterna visade sig fungera bra (med god reliabilitet) i de tre transportbranscherna, och kan utgöra värdefulla metoder för att monitorera och förbättra säkerhetskulturen i praktiska sammanhang. Att samla in data genom både frågeformulär och intervjuer var värdefullt; frågeformulärpaketet gav data som tillät jämförelse mellan transportbranscher och en möjlighet att skapa ett referensmaterial inom varje transportbransch. Intervjuerna gav kunskap om och exempel på positiva och negativa yttringar av säkerhetskulturen som de intervjuade hade fått erfarenhet av.



Jämförelser av de nio säkerhetskulturaspekternas medelvärden visade att flygtrafikledningen ofta hade något högre medelvärden jämfört med de andra två branscherna, medan ramporganisationen generellt sett hade de lägre medelvärdena.



Jämfört med anställda så hade ledare generellt sett mer positiva uppfattningar om säkerhetskulturaspekterna, men de två grupperna skiljde sig mycket litet åt i hur man uppfattade organisationsklimatet. Ledares förväntningar och mål när det gällde säkerhetskulturaspekterna jämfördes med anställdas verkliga värden på säkerhetskulturaspekterna erhållna från frågeformulärdata. De värden/bedömningar som anställda gav för säkerhetskulturaspekterna var ofta lägre/sämre än både ledares uppskattning av verkligheten och ledares lägsta acceptabla gräns för värden på säkerhetskulturaspekterna.



Individfaktorer som kön, ålder, tid i företaget visade sig ha liten effekt på hur säkerhetskulturaspekterna uppfattades och bedömdes.



Organisationsklimatet som studerades ombord på tre av de sex fartygen kunde till sin karaktär placeras mellan de normativa ?innovativa? och ?stagnerade? organisationstyperna, och ofta närmare den ?stagnerade? typen.



Organisationsklimatet inom de tre enheterna inom flygtrafikledningen var i huvuddrag mest lik klimatet i ?innovativa? organisationer.



Man kunde hitta relationer mellan säkerhetskulturaspekterna och organisationsklimatdimensionerna. Inom passagerarsjöfarten var bättre Utmaning/Motivation hos personalen och ett bättre Idéstöd signifikant positivt relaterat till de flesta säkerhetskulturaspekterna. Inom flygtrafikledningen, var ett bättre Idéstöd och färre Konflikter signifikant positivt relaterade till många säkerhetskulturaspekter.



Resultaten visade att processer för lärande är bättre utvecklade inom flygtrafikledningen än inom passagerarsjöfart och rampverksamhet. Jämfört med de andra två branscherna, kan flygtrafikledningen karakteriseras ha en mer mogen ansats till att rapportera anomalier och ha en mer utvecklad process för att analysera och implementera förbättringar.



Fortsatt forskning inom säkerhetskulturområdet bör fokusera på att utveckla metoder för att mäta beteendeelement och systemelement hos en säkerhetskultur; testa relationen mellan säkerhetskultur, säkerhetshantering och säkerhetsbeteenden; bestämma vilka aspekter och specifika frågor som är viktiga vid mätning av säkerhetskultur; samt söka finna vilka komponenter som påverkar säkerhetsbeteenden och hur dessa komponenter utövar sitt inflytande på säkerhetsbeteenden. (Less)
Abstract
The research presented in this thesis investigates sea and aviation transport safety culture, with a focus on perceptions and attitudes. A safety culture reflects the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and values that individuals share in relation to safety. Safety culture is often identified as being essential to an organization's ability to manage safety-related aspects of its operations. The aims of this research are: to assess individual perceptions and judgments of safety culture in practical contexts by using nine aspects of safety culture found in the safety culture literature; to increase knowledge about the safety culture aspects by conducting comparative studies in three transport branches; and to investigate relationships between... (More)
The research presented in this thesis investigates sea and aviation transport safety culture, with a focus on perceptions and attitudes. A safety culture reflects the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and values that individuals share in relation to safety. Safety culture is often identified as being essential to an organization's ability to manage safety-related aspects of its operations. The aims of this research are: to assess individual perceptions and judgments of safety culture in practical contexts by using nine aspects of safety culture found in the safety culture literature; to increase knowledge about the safety culture aspects by conducting comparative studies in three transport branches; and to investigate relationships between safety culture aspects and organizational climate dimensions. The approach to safety culture presented in this thesis focuses on good organizational learning and investigates nine aspects: Learning, Reporting, Justness, Flexibility, Communication, Attitudes towards safety, Safety-related behaviours, Risk perception, and Working situation.



Studies were conducted in airport ground handling (one site), passenger shipping (six ships), and air traffic control (three sites), where the safety culture was assessed using observations, questionnaire packages, interviews, and collection of facts. In total, 949 subjects completed a questionnaire package containing nine scales, one for each safety culture aspect, and 80 interviews were conducted. Ekvall's organizational climate questionnaire, which focuses in part on an organization's ability for innovation and change, was completed by 719 subjects.



The nine scales representing the nine safety culture aspects were found to function well with good reliability in the three transport settings, and may constitute valuable methods for monitoring and improving safety culture in working environments. Obtaining both questionnaire data (the nine scales) and interview data was valuable; the questionnaire package provided comparative data across transport branches and allowed establishment of reference data concerning safety culture aspects in each of the three branches. The interviews provided knowledge and examples of positive and negative expressions of safety culture that the interviewees had experienced.



The comparative studies of safety culture aspects were conducted using a multiplex approach of data collection, which provided valuable knowledge about safety culture in practical contexts.



The comparisons of average scores for the nine safety culture aspects showed that air traffic control often had somewhat higher average scores than the other two branches, while the ground handling ramp organization generally had the lowest average scores.



Compared to employees, managers generally had somewhat more positive perceptions and judgments of safety culture aspects, but the two groups differed very little in their perceptions and judgments of the organizational climate. Managers? expectations and goals concerning safety culture aspects were compared to employees? actual questionnaire scores. Employees? reports of the safety culture aspects were often poorer than both managers? estimations of reality and managers? lower acceptable limits for safety culture aspect scores.



Individual characteristics, such as gender, age, and time in company, were found to have very little effect on how the safety culture aspects were perceived and judged.



The organizational climate on board three passenger/cargo ships was found to be somewhere in between the normative ?innovative? and the ?stagnating? organization types, and very often closer to the ?stagnating? type. The organizational climate at each of the three air traffic control sites was similar to the climate in ?innovative? organizations.



Relationships existed between safety culture aspects and organizational climate dimensions. In passenger shipping, better Challenge/Motivation among personnel and a higher level of Support for ideas were significantly positively related to most safety culture aspects. In air traffic control, a higher level of Support for ideas and a lower level of Conflicts were significantly positively related to many safety culture aspects.



The results show that learning processes are better developed in the air traffic control setting than in passenger shipping and airport ground handling ramp activities. Compared to the other two branches, air traffic control can be characterized by a more mature approach to reporting anomalies and by having a more developed procedure for analysing limitations and implementing improvements.



Further research in the safety culture field should concentrate on developing methods for assessing the behavioural and situational areas of safety culture; testing the relation of safety culture to safety management and safety behaviour; determining which aspects and items are important for measuring safety culture; and finding indications of what elements influence safety behaviours, and how they exert this influence. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Prof Grote, Gudela, ETH Zürich, Schweiz
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
organizational climate, air traffic control, safety culture, passenger shipping, airport ground handling, Social sciences, Samhällsvetenskaper, Development psychology, Utvecklingspsykologi, Applied and experimental psychology, Tillämpad och experimentell psykologi, Technological sciences, Teknik, Säkerhetsteknik, Safety technology
volume
18
pages
149 pages
publisher
Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Department of Design Sciences, Lund University
defense location
Stora Hörsalen, IKDC, Sölvegatan 26, Faculty of Engineering, Lund university
defense date
2006-06-07 13:15
external identifiers
  • other:ISRN:LUTMDN/TMAT-1014-SE
ISSN
1650-9773
ISBN
91-628-6686-9
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
87f53ce1-039b-4714-ad43-0d9ace88ad1b (old id 546920)
date added to LUP
2007-09-06 14:14:53
date last changed
2018-11-21 20:37:16
@phdthesis{87f53ce1-039b-4714-ad43-0d9ace88ad1b,
  abstract     = {The research presented in this thesis investigates sea and aviation transport safety culture, with a focus on perceptions and attitudes. A safety culture reflects the attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and values that individuals share in relation to safety. Safety culture is often identified as being essential to an organization's ability to manage safety-related aspects of its operations. The aims of this research are: to assess individual perceptions and judgments of safety culture in practical contexts by using nine aspects of safety culture found in the safety culture literature; to increase knowledge about the safety culture aspects by conducting comparative studies in three transport branches; and to investigate relationships between safety culture aspects and organizational climate dimensions. The approach to safety culture presented in this thesis focuses on good organizational learning and investigates nine aspects: Learning, Reporting, Justness, Flexibility, Communication, Attitudes towards safety, Safety-related behaviours, Risk perception, and Working situation.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Studies were conducted in airport ground handling (one site), passenger shipping (six ships), and air traffic control (three sites), where the safety culture was assessed using observations, questionnaire packages, interviews, and collection of facts. In total, 949 subjects completed a questionnaire package containing nine scales, one for each safety culture aspect, and 80 interviews were conducted. Ekvall's organizational climate questionnaire, which focuses in part on an organization's ability for innovation and change, was completed by 719 subjects.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The nine scales representing the nine safety culture aspects were found to function well with good reliability in the three transport settings, and may constitute valuable methods for monitoring and improving safety culture in working environments. Obtaining both questionnaire data (the nine scales) and interview data was valuable; the questionnaire package provided comparative data across transport branches and allowed establishment of reference data concerning safety culture aspects in each of the three branches. The interviews provided knowledge and examples of positive and negative expressions of safety culture that the interviewees had experienced.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The comparative studies of safety culture aspects were conducted using a multiplex approach of data collection, which provided valuable knowledge about safety culture in practical contexts.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The comparisons of average scores for the nine safety culture aspects showed that air traffic control often had somewhat higher average scores than the other two branches, while the ground handling ramp organization generally had the lowest average scores.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Compared to employees, managers generally had somewhat more positive perceptions and judgments of safety culture aspects, but the two groups differed very little in their perceptions and judgments of the organizational climate. Managers? expectations and goals concerning safety culture aspects were compared to employees? actual questionnaire scores. Employees? reports of the safety culture aspects were often poorer than both managers? estimations of reality and managers? lower acceptable limits for safety culture aspect scores.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Individual characteristics, such as gender, age, and time in company, were found to have very little effect on how the safety culture aspects were perceived and judged.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The organizational climate on board three passenger/cargo ships was found to be somewhere in between the normative ?innovative? and the ?stagnating? organization types, and very often closer to the ?stagnating? type. The organizational climate at each of the three air traffic control sites was similar to the climate in ?innovative? organizations.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Relationships existed between safety culture aspects and organizational climate dimensions. In passenger shipping, better Challenge/Motivation among personnel and a higher level of Support for ideas were significantly positively related to most safety culture aspects. In air traffic control, a higher level of Support for ideas and a lower level of Conflicts were significantly positively related to many safety culture aspects.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The results show that learning processes are better developed in the air traffic control setting than in passenger shipping and airport ground handling ramp activities. Compared to the other two branches, air traffic control can be characterized by a more mature approach to reporting anomalies and by having a more developed procedure for analysing limitations and implementing improvements.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Further research in the safety culture field should concentrate on developing methods for assessing the behavioural and situational areas of safety culture; testing the relation of safety culture to safety management and safety behaviour; determining which aspects and items are important for measuring safety culture; and finding indications of what elements influence safety behaviours, and how they exert this influence.},
  author       = {Ek, Åsa},
  isbn         = {91-628-6686-9},
  issn         = {1650-9773},
  keyword      = {organizational climate,air traffic control,safety culture,passenger shipping,airport ground handling,Social sciences,Samhällsvetenskaper,Development psychology,Utvecklingspsykologi,Applied and experimental psychology,Tillämpad och experimentell psykologi,Technological sciences,Teknik,Säkerhetsteknik,Safety technology},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {149},
  publisher    = {Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Department of Design Sciences, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Safety Culture in Sea and Aviation Transport},
  volume       = {18},
  year         = {2006},
}