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Ecological opportunity and predator-prey interactions : Linking eco-evolutionary processes and diversification in adaptive radiations

Pontarp, Mikael LU and Petchey, Owen L. (2018) In Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 285(1874).
Abstract

Much of life’s diversity has arisen through ecological opportunity and adaptive radiations, but the mechanistic underpinning of such diversification is not fully understood. Competition and predation can affect adaptive radiations, but contrasting theoretical and empirical results show that they can both promote and interrupt diversification. A mechanistic understanding of the link between microevolutionary processes and macroevolutionary patterns is thus needed, especially in trophic communities. Here, we use a trait-based eco-evolutionary model to investigate the mechanisms linking competition, predation and adaptive radiations. By combining available micro-evolutionary theory and simulations of adaptive radiations we show that... (More)

Much of life’s diversity has arisen through ecological opportunity and adaptive radiations, but the mechanistic underpinning of such diversification is not fully understood. Competition and predation can affect adaptive radiations, but contrasting theoretical and empirical results show that they can both promote and interrupt diversification. A mechanistic understanding of the link between microevolutionary processes and macroevolutionary patterns is thus needed, especially in trophic communities. Here, we use a trait-based eco-evolutionary model to investigate the mechanisms linking competition, predation and adaptive radiations. By combining available micro-evolutionary theory and simulations of adaptive radiations we show that intraspecific competition is crucial for diversification as it induces disruptive selection, in particular in early phases of radiation. The diversification rate is however decreased in later phases owing to interspecific competition as niche availability, and population sizes are decreased.We provide newinsight into how predation tends to have a negative effect on prey diversification through decreased population sizes, decreased disruptive selection and through the exclusion of prey from parts of niche space. The seemingly disparate effects of competition and predation on adaptive radiations, listed in the literature, may thus be acting and interacting in the same adaptive radiation at different relative strength as the radiation progresses.

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author
and
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
keywords
Adaptive radiation, Community patterns, Competition, Ecological speciation, Macroevolution, Predation
in
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
volume
285
issue
1874
article number
20172550
pages
10 pages
publisher
Royal Society
external identifiers
  • pmid:29514970
  • scopus:85043577692
ISSN
0962-8452
DOI
10.1098/rspb.2017.2550
project
Theoretical Macroevolutionary Ecology
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
89bb9e4e-4667-4c09-9daa-337a70d4f50f
date added to LUP
2019-04-10 10:13:02
date last changed
2021-04-27 03:07:36
@article{89bb9e4e-4667-4c09-9daa-337a70d4f50f,
  abstract     = {<p>Much of life’s diversity has arisen through ecological opportunity and adaptive radiations, but the mechanistic underpinning of such diversification is not fully understood. Competition and predation can affect adaptive radiations, but contrasting theoretical and empirical results show that they can both promote and interrupt diversification. A mechanistic understanding of the link between microevolutionary processes and macroevolutionary patterns is thus needed, especially in trophic communities. Here, we use a trait-based eco-evolutionary model to investigate the mechanisms linking competition, predation and adaptive radiations. By combining available micro-evolutionary theory and simulations of adaptive radiations we show that intraspecific competition is crucial for diversification as it induces disruptive selection, in particular in early phases of radiation. The diversification rate is however decreased in later phases owing to interspecific competition as niche availability, and population sizes are decreased.We provide newinsight into how predation tends to have a negative effect on prey diversification through decreased population sizes, decreased disruptive selection and through the exclusion of prey from parts of niche space. The seemingly disparate effects of competition and predation on adaptive radiations, listed in the literature, may thus be acting and interacting in the same adaptive radiation at different relative strength as the radiation progresses.</p>},
  author       = {Pontarp, Mikael and Petchey, Owen L.},
  issn         = {0962-8452},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {03},
  number       = {1874},
  publisher    = {Royal Society},
  series       = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences},
  title        = {Ecological opportunity and predator-prey interactions : Linking eco-evolutionary processes and diversification in adaptive radiations},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.2550},
  doi          = {10.1098/rspb.2017.2550},
  volume       = {285},
  year         = {2018},
}