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Vitamin D status and dental caries in healthy Swedish children

Gyll, Johanna; Ridell, Karin; Öhlund, Inger; Karlsland Åkeson, Pia LU ; Johansson, Ingegerd and Lif Holgerson, Pernilla (2018) In Nutrition Journal 17. p.1-10
Abstract

Background: Vitamin D is crucial for mineralized tissue formation and immunological functions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and dental status in healthy children with vitamin D supplementation in infancy and at 6 years of age. Method: Eight-year-old children who had participated in a vitamin D intervention project when they were 6 years old were invited to participate in a dental follow-up study. They had fair or darker skin complexion and represented two geographically distant parts of Sweden. 25-hydroxy vitamin D in serum had been measured at 6 years of age and after a 3-month intervention with 25, 10 or 2 (placebo) μg of vitamin D3 per day. Two years later, caries and... (More)

Background: Vitamin D is crucial for mineralized tissue formation and immunological functions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and dental status in healthy children with vitamin D supplementation in infancy and at 6 years of age. Method: Eight-year-old children who had participated in a vitamin D intervention project when they were 6 years old were invited to participate in a dental follow-up study. They had fair or darker skin complexion and represented two geographically distant parts of Sweden. 25-hydroxy vitamin D in serum had been measured at 6 years of age and after a 3-month intervention with 25, 10 or 2 (placebo) μg of vitamin D3 per day. Two years later, caries and enamel defects were scored, self-reported information on e.g., oral behavior, dietary habits and intake of vitamin D supplements was collected, and innate immunity peptide LL37 levels in saliva and cariogenic mutant streptococci in tooth biofilm were analyzed. The outcome variables were caries and tooth enamel defects. Results: Dental status was evaluated in 85 of the 206 children in the basic intervention study. Low vitamin D levels were found in 28% at baseline compared to 11% after the intervention, and 34% reported continued intake of vitamin D supplements. Logistic regression supported a weak inverse association between vitamin D status at 6 years of age and caries 2 years later (odds ratio 0.96; p = 0.024) with minor attenuation after an adjustment for potential confounders. Multivariate projection regression confirmed that insufficient vitamin D levels correlated with caries and higher vitamin D levels correlated with being caries-free. Vitamin D status at 6 years of age was unrelated to enamel defects but was positively associated with saliva LL37 levels. Conclusion: An association between vitamin D status and caries was supported, but it was not completely consistent. Vitamin D status at 6 years of age was unrelated to enamel defects but was positively associated with LL37 expression. Trial registration: The basic intervention study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with register number NCT01741324 (www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02347293) on November 26, 2012.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
caries, Children, enamel defects, LL37, Vitamin D
in
Nutrition Journal
volume
17
pages
1 - 10
publisher
BioMed Central
external identifiers
  • scopus:85040828698
ISSN
1475-2891
DOI
10.1186/s12937-018-0318-1
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
8aa488c0-b4eb-4170-9dbd-7345f5670b21
date added to LUP
2018-02-07 16:06:19
date last changed
2018-09-30 04:48:56
@article{8aa488c0-b4eb-4170-9dbd-7345f5670b21,
  abstract     = {<p>Background: Vitamin D is crucial for mineralized tissue formation and immunological functions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and dental status in healthy children with vitamin D supplementation in infancy and at 6 years of age. Method: Eight-year-old children who had participated in a vitamin D intervention project when they were 6 years old were invited to participate in a dental follow-up study. They had fair or darker skin complexion and represented two geographically distant parts of Sweden. 25-hydroxy vitamin D in serum had been measured at 6 years of age and after a 3-month intervention with 25, 10 or 2 (placebo) μg of vitamin D<sub>3</sub> per day. Two years later, caries and enamel defects were scored, self-reported information on e.g., oral behavior, dietary habits and intake of vitamin D supplements was collected, and innate immunity peptide LL37 levels in saliva and cariogenic mutant streptococci in tooth biofilm were analyzed. The outcome variables were caries and tooth enamel defects. Results: Dental status was evaluated in 85 of the 206 children in the basic intervention study. Low vitamin D levels were found in 28% at baseline compared to 11% after the intervention, and 34% reported continued intake of vitamin D supplements. Logistic regression supported a weak inverse association between vitamin D status at 6 years of age and caries 2 years later (odds ratio 0.96; p = 0.024) with minor attenuation after an adjustment for potential confounders. Multivariate projection regression confirmed that insufficient vitamin D levels correlated with caries and higher vitamin D levels correlated with being caries-free. Vitamin D status at 6 years of age was unrelated to enamel defects but was positively associated with saliva LL37 levels. Conclusion: An association between vitamin D status and caries was supported, but it was not completely consistent. Vitamin D status at 6 years of age was unrelated to enamel defects but was positively associated with LL37 expression. Trial registration: The basic intervention study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with register number NCT01741324 (www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02347293) on November 26, 2012.</p>},
  articleno    = {11},
  author       = {Gyll, Johanna and Ridell, Karin and Öhlund, Inger and Karlsland Åkeson, Pia and Johansson, Ingegerd and Lif Holgerson, Pernilla},
  issn         = {1475-2891},
  keyword      = {caries,Children,enamel defects,LL37,Vitamin D},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {01},
  pages        = {1--10},
  publisher    = {BioMed Central},
  series       = {Nutrition Journal},
  title        = {Vitamin D status and dental caries in healthy Swedish children},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-018-0318-1},
  volume       = {17},
  year         = {2018},
}