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Against the flow: chemical detection of downstream predators in running waters

Dahl, Jonas LU ; Nilsson, Anders LU and Pettersson, Lars LU (1998) In Royal Society of London. Proceedings B. Biological Sciences 265(1403). p.1339-1344
Abstract
In running waters, chemical cues have generally been assumed to always come from upstream locations.

Here, we present ¢eld and laboratory evidence that Gammarus pulex can use chemical cues from down-

stream predators to adaptively adjust drifting behaviour. In the ¢eld, signi¢cantly fewer Gammarus

migrated into stream enclosures where brown trout (Salmo trutta) were present than into control enclo-

sures. In a subsequent laboratory experiment, Gammarus actively avoided live trout and trout chemicals

placed downstream in an arti¢cial stream, whereas no e¡ects were found in response to control or visual

cues.We suggest that the mechanism explaining the ability of Gammarus to detect... (More)
In running waters, chemical cues have generally been assumed to always come from upstream locations.

Here, we present ¢eld and laboratory evidence that Gammarus pulex can use chemical cues from down-

stream predators to adaptively adjust drifting behaviour. In the ¢eld, signi¢cantly fewer Gammarus

migrated into stream enclosures where brown trout (Salmo trutta) were present than into control enclo-

sures. In a subsequent laboratory experiment, Gammarus actively avoided live trout and trout chemicals

placed downstream in an arti¢cial stream, whereas no e¡ects were found in response to control or visual

cues.We suggest that the mechanism explaining the ability of Gammarus to detect downstream predators is

use of back£ows, which locally transport ¢sh chemicals against the main £ow. Such back£ows are both

created by the Gammarus itself and by surrounding substrate heterogeneity. These results profoundly a¡ect

the way in which we view the chemical environment of running waters and have important implications

for empirical and theoretical work evaluating predator e¡ects in running waters, as they demonstrate that

prey immigration rates can depend on downstream predator densities. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
chemical communication, predator^prey interaction, £uid dynamics, drifting behaviour, migration, Gammarus pulex
in
Royal Society of London. Proceedings B. Biological Sciences
volume
265
issue
1403
pages
1339 - 1344
publisher
Royal Society
external identifiers
  • scopus:0032558103
ISSN
1471-2954
DOI
10.1098/rspb.1998.0439
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
569953f4-c87a-4862-8b27-cdc2ad2a4c48 (old id 934412)
date added to LUP
2008-01-17 13:38:13
date last changed
2017-04-09 03:27:30
@article{569953f4-c87a-4862-8b27-cdc2ad2a4c48,
  abstract     = {In running waters, chemical cues have generally been assumed to always come from upstream locations.<br/><br>
Here, we present ¢eld and laboratory evidence that Gammarus pulex can use chemical cues from down-<br/><br>
stream predators to adaptively adjust drifting behaviour. In the ¢eld, signi¢cantly fewer Gammarus<br/><br>
migrated into stream enclosures where brown trout (Salmo trutta) were present than into control enclo-<br/><br>
sures. In a subsequent laboratory experiment, Gammarus actively avoided live trout and trout chemicals<br/><br>
placed downstream in an arti¢cial stream, whereas no e¡ects were found in response to control or visual<br/><br>
cues.We suggest that the mechanism explaining the ability of Gammarus to detect downstream predators is<br/><br>
use of back£ows, which locally transport ¢sh chemicals against the main £ow. Such back£ows are both<br/><br>
created by the Gammarus itself and by surrounding substrate heterogeneity. These results profoundly a¡ect<br/><br>
the way in which we view the chemical environment of running waters and have important implications<br/><br>
for empirical and theoretical work evaluating predator e¡ects in running waters, as they demonstrate that<br/><br>
prey immigration rates can depend on downstream predator densities.},
  author       = {Dahl, Jonas and Nilsson, Anders and Pettersson, Lars},
  issn         = {1471-2954},
  keyword      = {chemical communication,predator^prey interaction,£uid dynamics,drifting behaviour,migration,Gammarus pulex},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1403},
  pages        = {1339--1344},
  publisher    = {Royal Society},
  series       = {Royal Society of London. Proceedings B. Biological Sciences},
  title        = {Against the flow: chemical detection of downstream predators in running waters},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1998.0439},
  volume       = {265},
  year         = {1998},
}