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Effects of lung volume and involuntary breathing movements on the human diving response

Andersson, Johan LU orcid and Schagatay, E (1998) In European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 77(1-2). p.19-24
Abstract

The effects of lung volume and involuntary breathing movements on the human diving response were studied in 17 breath-hold divers. Each subject performed maximal effort apnoeas and simulated dives by apnoea and cold water face immersion, at lung volumes of 60%, 85%, and 100% of prone vital capacity (VC). Time of apnoea, blood pressure, heart rate, skin capillary blood flow, and fractions of end-expiratory CO2 and O2 were measured. The length of the simulated dives was the shortest at 60% of VC, probably because at this level the build up of alveolar CO2 was fastest. Apnoeas with face immersion at 100% of VC gave a marked drop in arterial pressure during the initial 20 s, probably due to high intrathoracic pressure mechanically reducing... (More)

The effects of lung volume and involuntary breathing movements on the human diving response were studied in 17 breath-hold divers. Each subject performed maximal effort apnoeas and simulated dives by apnoea and cold water face immersion, at lung volumes of 60%, 85%, and 100% of prone vital capacity (VC). Time of apnoea, blood pressure, heart rate, skin capillary blood flow, and fractions of end-expiratory CO2 and O2 were measured. The length of the simulated dives was the shortest at 60% of VC, probably because at this level the build up of alveolar CO2 was fastest. Apnoeas with face immersion at 100% of VC gave a marked drop in arterial pressure during the initial 20 s, probably due to high intrathoracic pressure mechanically reducing venous return. The diving response was most pronounced at 60% of VC. We concluded that at the two larger lung volumes both mechanical factors and input from pulmonary stretch receptors influenced the bradycardia and vasoconstriction, resulting in a nonlinear relationship between the breath-hold lung volume and magnitude of the diving response in the near-VC range. Furthermore, the involuntary breathing movements that appeared during the struggle phase of the apnoeas were too small to affect the diving response.

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publication status
published
subject
keywords
Adult, Apnea, Blood Flow Velocity, Blood Pressure, Capillaries/physiology, Cold Temperature, Diving/physiology, Face, Heart Rate, Humans, Immersion, Lung/physiology, Lung Volume Measurements, Male, Movement, Respiration/physiology, Skin/blood supply
in
European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology
volume
77
issue
1-2
pages
19 - 24
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • pmid:9459516
  • scopus:0031911193
ISSN
0301-5548
DOI
10.1007/s004210050294
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
99506c26-248f-4876-b0c8-893a81c05f3f
date added to LUP
2022-11-17 20:59:21
date last changed
2022-11-18 09:35:14
@article{99506c26-248f-4876-b0c8-893a81c05f3f,
  abstract     = {{<p>The effects of lung volume and involuntary breathing movements on the human diving response were studied in 17 breath-hold divers. Each subject performed maximal effort apnoeas and simulated dives by apnoea and cold water face immersion, at lung volumes of 60%, 85%, and 100% of prone vital capacity (VC). Time of apnoea, blood pressure, heart rate, skin capillary blood flow, and fractions of end-expiratory CO2 and O2 were measured. The length of the simulated dives was the shortest at 60% of VC, probably because at this level the build up of alveolar CO2 was fastest. Apnoeas with face immersion at 100% of VC gave a marked drop in arterial pressure during the initial 20 s, probably due to high intrathoracic pressure mechanically reducing venous return. The diving response was most pronounced at 60% of VC. We concluded that at the two larger lung volumes both mechanical factors and input from pulmonary stretch receptors influenced the bradycardia and vasoconstriction, resulting in a nonlinear relationship between the breath-hold lung volume and magnitude of the diving response in the near-VC range. Furthermore, the involuntary breathing movements that appeared during the struggle phase of the apnoeas were too small to affect the diving response.</p>}},
  author       = {{Andersson, Johan and Schagatay, E}},
  issn         = {{0301-5548}},
  keywords     = {{Adult; Apnea; Blood Flow Velocity; Blood Pressure; Capillaries/physiology; Cold Temperature; Diving/physiology; Face; Heart Rate; Humans; Immersion; Lung/physiology; Lung Volume Measurements; Male; Movement; Respiration/physiology; Skin/blood supply}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1-2}},
  pages        = {{19--24}},
  publisher    = {{Springer}},
  series       = {{European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology}},
  title        = {{Effects of lung volume and involuntary breathing movements on the human diving response}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004210050294}},
  doi          = {{10.1007/s004210050294}},
  volume       = {{77}},
  year         = {{1998}},
}