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Prevalence and incidence of domestic violence during pregnancy and associated risk factors : A longitudinal cohort study in the south of Sweden

Finnbogadóttir, Hafrún LU ; Dykes, Anna Karin LU and Wann-Hansson, Christine LU (2016) In BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 16(1).
Abstract

Background: Domestic violence during pregnancy is not only a severe public health issue that jeopardizes maternal and foetal health but also violates human rights. The aim was to explore the prevalence and incidence of domestic violence among pregnant women, in the southwestern region of Scania in Sweden, and their experience of a history of violence. In addition, to explore the association between domestic violence during pregnancy and possible risk factors. Methods: This is a longitudinal cohort-study including pregnant women ≥18 years of age, registered at antenatal care when pregnant. A cohort of 1939 pregnant women answered Questionnaire I (QI) in gestational week 13 (mean 12.8 week, SD 5.11). Response rate of Questionnaire II... (More)

Background: Domestic violence during pregnancy is not only a severe public health issue that jeopardizes maternal and foetal health but also violates human rights. The aim was to explore the prevalence and incidence of domestic violence among pregnant women, in the southwestern region of Scania in Sweden, and their experience of a history of violence. In addition, to explore the association between domestic violence during pregnancy and possible risk factors. Methods: This is a longitudinal cohort-study including pregnant women ≥18 years of age, registered at antenatal care when pregnant. A cohort of 1939 pregnant women answered Questionnaire I (QI) in gestational week 13 (mean 12.8 week, SD 5.11). Response rate of Questionnaire II (QII) in gestation week 34 (mean 33.9 week, SD 2.2) was 78.8 % (n = 1527). Statistical analysis was descriptive statistics, logistic regression and multiple regression with Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). Results: Both QI and QII were completed by 77.8 % (n = 1509) of the women and 44.3 % (n = 668) reported a lifetime experience of abuse irrespective of type, severity or perpetrator. Also, 5.1 % (n = 77) reported some experience of abuse past year. Prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy was 2.0 % (n = 29) and the incidence was 7.3 new cases per 1000 women. The strongest risk factor for domestic violence, during early and late pregnancy, was history of violence whereby all women who disclosed exposure had also reported history of violence (p < 0.001). To be single/living apart gave 8.4 times more risk associated with domestic violence during pregnancy (AOR 8.4; 95 % CI: 2.2-32.6). Having several symptoms of depression and lack of sleep gave 3.8 times more risk respectively (AOR 3.8; 95 % CI: 1.1-13.6) and (AOR 3.8; 95 % CI 1.1-12.9). Conclusions: Pregnant women with a history of violence as well as being single/living apart and/or having several symptoms of depression during pregnancy should be alerts for clinical working midwives and obstetricians. Further, this is important knowledge for health care providers to develop or upgrade guidelines and plans of action for pregnant women exposed to violence.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Domestic violence, Incidence, Pregnancy, Prevalence, Risk factors
in
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
volume
16
issue
1
publisher
BioMed Central
external identifiers
  • scopus:84982112153
  • wos:000381477300003
ISSN
1471-2393
DOI
10.1186/s12884-016-1017-6
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
9a9c4c80-2190-43b2-b1c2-c2702cfd5288
date added to LUP
2016-12-19 14:20:51
date last changed
2017-09-18 11:32:20
@article{9a9c4c80-2190-43b2-b1c2-c2702cfd5288,
  abstract     = {<p>Background: Domestic violence during pregnancy is not only a severe public health issue that jeopardizes maternal and foetal health but also violates human rights. The aim was to explore the prevalence and incidence of domestic violence among pregnant women, in the southwestern region of Scania in Sweden, and their experience of a history of violence. In addition, to explore the association between domestic violence during pregnancy and possible risk factors. Methods: This is a longitudinal cohort-study including pregnant women ≥18 years of age, registered at antenatal care when pregnant. A cohort of 1939 pregnant women answered Questionnaire I (QI) in gestational week 13 (mean 12.8 week, SD 5.11). Response rate of Questionnaire II (QII) in gestation week 34 (mean 33.9 week, SD 2.2) was 78.8 % (n = 1527). Statistical analysis was descriptive statistics, logistic regression and multiple regression with Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). Results: Both QI and QII were completed by 77.8 % (n = 1509) of the women and 44.3 % (n = 668) reported a lifetime experience of abuse irrespective of type, severity or perpetrator. Also, 5.1 % (n = 77) reported some experience of abuse past year. Prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy was 2.0 % (n = 29) and the incidence was 7.3 new cases per 1000 women. The strongest risk factor for domestic violence, during early and late pregnancy, was history of violence whereby all women who disclosed exposure had also reported history of violence (p &lt; 0.001). To be single/living apart gave 8.4 times more risk associated with domestic violence during pregnancy (AOR 8.4; 95 % CI: 2.2-32.6). Having several symptoms of depression and lack of sleep gave 3.8 times more risk respectively (AOR 3.8; 95 % CI: 1.1-13.6) and (AOR 3.8; 95 % CI 1.1-12.9). Conclusions: Pregnant women with a history of violence as well as being single/living apart and/or having several symptoms of depression during pregnancy should be alerts for clinical working midwives and obstetricians. Further, this is important knowledge for health care providers to develop or upgrade guidelines and plans of action for pregnant women exposed to violence.</p>},
  articleno    = {228},
  author       = {Finnbogadóttir, Hafrún and Dykes, Anna Karin and Wann-Hansson, Christine},
  issn         = {1471-2393},
  keyword      = {Domestic violence,Incidence,Pregnancy,Prevalence,Risk factors},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {08},
  number       = {1},
  publisher    = {BioMed Central},
  series       = {BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth},
  title        = {Prevalence and incidence of domestic violence during pregnancy and associated risk factors : A longitudinal cohort study in the south of Sweden},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-016-1017-6},
  volume       = {16},
  year         = {2016},
}