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Coronary Hemodynamics in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis and Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement : Implications for Clinical Indices of Coronary Stenosis Severity

Ahmad, Yousif; Götberg, Matthias LU ; Cook, Christopher; Howard, James P.; Malik, Iqbal; Mikhail, Ghada; Frame, Angela; Petraco, Ricardo; Rajkumar, Christopher and Demir, Ozan, et al. (2018) In JACC. Cardiovascular interventions 11(20). p.2019-2031
Abstract

OBJECTIVES: In this study, a systematic analysis was conducted of phasic intracoronary pressure and flow velocity in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and coronary artery disease, undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), to determine how AS affects: 1) phasic coronary flow; 2) hyperemic coronary flow; and 3) the most common clinically used indices of coronary stenosis severity, instantaneous wave-free ratio and fractional flow reserve.

BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) have concomitant coronary artery disease. The effect of the valve on coronary pressure, flow, and the established invasive clinical indices of stenosis severity have not been... (More)

OBJECTIVES: In this study, a systematic analysis was conducted of phasic intracoronary pressure and flow velocity in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and coronary artery disease, undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), to determine how AS affects: 1) phasic coronary flow; 2) hyperemic coronary flow; and 3) the most common clinically used indices of coronary stenosis severity, instantaneous wave-free ratio and fractional flow reserve.

BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) have concomitant coronary artery disease. The effect of the valve on coronary pressure, flow, and the established invasive clinical indices of stenosis severity have not been studied.

METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (30 lesions, 50.0% men, mean age 82.1 ± 6.5 years) with severe AS and coronary artery disease were included. Intracoronary pressure and flow assessments were performed at rest and during hyperemia immediately before and after TAVR.

RESULTS: Flow during the wave-free period of diastole did not change post-TAVR (29.78 ± 14.9 cm/s vs. 30.81 ± 19.6 cm/s; p = 0.64). Whole-cycle hyperemic flow increased significantly post-TAVR (33.44 ± 13.4 cm/s pre-TAVR vs. 40.33 ± 17.4 cm/s post-TAVR; p = 0.006); this was secondary to significant increases in systolic hyperemic flow post-TAVR (27.67 ± 12.1 cm/s pre-TAVR vs. 34.15 ± 17.5 cm/s post-TAVR; p = 0.02). Instantaneous wave-free ratio values did not change post-TAVR (0.88 ± 0.09 pre-TAVR vs. 0.88 ± 0.09 post-TAVR; p = 0.73), whereas fractional flow reserve decreased significantly post-TAVR (0.87 ± 0.08 pre-TAVR vs. 0.85 ± 0.09 post-TAVR; p = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Systolic and hyperemic coronary flow increased significantly post-TAVR; consequently, hyperemic indices that include systole underestimated coronary stenosis severity in patients with severe AS. Flow during the wave-free period of diastole did not change post-TAVR, suggesting that indices calculated during this period are not vulnerable to the confounding effect of the stenotic aortic valve.

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@article{9d79af9b-ce10-41fa-8ae3-c8efd0d4e17b,
  abstract     = {<p>OBJECTIVES: In this study, a systematic analysis was conducted of phasic intracoronary pressure and flow velocity in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and coronary artery disease, undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), to determine how AS affects: 1) phasic coronary flow; 2) hyperemic coronary flow; and 3) the most common clinically used indices of coronary stenosis severity, instantaneous wave-free ratio and fractional flow reserve.</p><p>BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) have concomitant coronary artery disease. The effect of the valve on coronary pressure, flow, and the established invasive clinical indices of stenosis severity have not been studied.</p><p>METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (30 lesions, 50.0% men, mean age 82.1 ± 6.5 years) with severe AS and coronary artery disease were included. Intracoronary pressure and flow assessments were performed at rest and during hyperemia immediately before and after TAVR.</p><p>RESULTS: Flow during the wave-free period of diastole did not change post-TAVR (29.78 ± 14.9 cm/s vs. 30.81 ± 19.6 cm/s; p = 0.64). Whole-cycle hyperemic flow increased significantly post-TAVR (33.44 ± 13.4 cm/s pre-TAVR vs. 40.33 ± 17.4 cm/s post-TAVR; p = 0.006); this was secondary to significant increases in systolic hyperemic flow post-TAVR (27.67 ± 12.1 cm/s pre-TAVR vs. 34.15 ± 17.5 cm/s post-TAVR; p = 0.02). Instantaneous wave-free ratio values did not change post-TAVR (0.88 ± 0.09 pre-TAVR vs. 0.88 ± 0.09 post-TAVR; p = 0.73), whereas fractional flow reserve decreased significantly post-TAVR (0.87 ± 0.08 pre-TAVR vs. 0.85 ± 0.09 post-TAVR; p = 0.001).</p><p>CONCLUSIONS: Systolic and hyperemic coronary flow increased significantly post-TAVR; consequently, hyperemic indices that include systole underestimated coronary stenosis severity in patients with severe AS. Flow during the wave-free period of diastole did not change post-TAVR, suggesting that indices calculated during this period are not vulnerable to the confounding effect of the stenotic aortic valve.</p>},
  author       = {Ahmad, Yousif and Götberg, Matthias and Cook, Christopher and Howard, James P. and Malik, Iqbal and Mikhail, Ghada and Frame, Angela and Petraco, Ricardo and Rajkumar, Christopher and Demir, Ozan and Iglesias, Juan F. and Bhindi, Ravinay and Koul, Sasha and Hadjiloizou, Nearchos and Gerber, Robert and Ramrakha, Punit and Ruparelia, Neil and Sutaria, Nilesh and Kanaganayagam, Gajen and Ariff, Ben and Fertleman, Michael and Anderson, Jon and Chukwuemeka, Andrew and Francis, Darrel and Mayet, Jamil and Serruys, Patrick and Davies, Justin and Sen, Sayan},
  issn         = {1876-7605},
  keyword      = {aortic stenosis,coronary flow,fractional flow reserve,instantaneous wave-free ratio,TAVR},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {20},
  pages        = {2019--2031},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {JACC. Cardiovascular interventions},
  title        = {Coronary Hemodynamics in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis and Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement : Implications for Clinical Indices of Coronary Stenosis Severity},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2018.07.019},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {2018},
}