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Sustainable Management of Banana Waste through Renewable Energy and Bio-Fertilizer Generation

LI, Chao LU ; Liu, Jing LU ; Ivo Achu, Nges LU and Fang, J (2016) In Agriculture issues and policies p.69-89
Abstract
Bananas are widely consumed fruits with over 140 metric tons produced annually. As much as 336 metric tons of banana pseudo-stems, sheaths, piths, peels and leaves are produced annually. These wastes are usually discarded via composting, aerobic decomposition, incinerated or simply allowed to rot in the fields. However, these treatments may cause serious environmental and ecological problems.
Meantime, banana wastes are high in organic content that can be converted to a renewable energy. Renewable energy generation technologies such anaerobic digestion (AD), dark fermentation and ethanol fermentation are commonly reported in scientific literature. This chapter deals with the usability of banana waste as feedstock for bio-energy... (More)
Bananas are widely consumed fruits with over 140 metric tons produced annually. As much as 336 metric tons of banana pseudo-stems, sheaths, piths, peels and leaves are produced annually. These wastes are usually discarded via composting, aerobic decomposition, incinerated or simply allowed to rot in the fields. However, these treatments may cause serious environmental and ecological problems.
Meantime, banana wastes are high in organic content that can be converted to a renewable energy. Renewable energy generation technologies such anaerobic digestion (AD), dark fermentation and ethanol fermentation are commonly reported in scientific literature. This chapter deals with the usability of banana waste as feedstock for bio-energy (in the form of biogas bio-hydrogen and bio-ethanol) production and various pre-treatments commonly applied prior to these processes.
AD process is a four-step sequential process whereby bacteria and Archaea break organic matter in the absence of oxygen to produce a mixture of gases (biogas), amongst them energy-rich methane. The generated biogas can be upgraded to bio-methane that can be a substitute for natural gas. The AD process is widely recognized as a promising, robust, low-cost technique for treatment of various organic wastes streams with or without pre-treatment. AD is also easy to perform and the residue from the process called digestate can be used as a bio-fertilizer. Banana residues may become a feedstock of choice in the AD process because of its low lignin content and high biodegradability.
There are several bacteria with a potential for hydrogen production through dark fermentation. In recent years, extreme thermophilic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor sp. have emerged as bacteria of choice for hydrogen production because of high rates and high yields. For banana residues to be used as feedstock for hydrogen production through dark fermentation it must be pre-treated to release organic acids such as acetic and butyric acids, which are preferred substrates for Caldicellulosiruptor sp. Pre-treatments to yield simple sugars such as glucose and sucrose can also be employed when a mixed culture is used as the seed for hydrogen production.
Various types of yeast have been used for ethanol production from glucose (6 carbons), xylose (5 carbons) or both. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model eukaryotic organism, often used in such research because it is easy to manipulate and culture, and is comparatively similar in structure to human cells. As with dark fermentation, there is a need for a pre-treatment before one can use banana residues for ethanol fermentation as the yeast can only use reduced organic forms such as glucose and xylose.
There is also the possible of combined hydrogen or combined ethanol and biogas production thereby maximizing energy yields and producing a valuable fertilizer from the digestate (after AD). In such a scenario, a closed loop can be created. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Waste treatment, Sustainability, Renewable energy, Bio-fertilizer, Banana waste
categories
Popular Science
in
Agriculture issues and policies
editor
Pearson, Valerie and
pages
21 pages
publisher
Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
external identifiers
  • scopus:85009484117
  • scopus:85024850767
ISBN
9781634854184
978-1-63485-429-0
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
a423424b-28ba-43ad-896b-c1f218cb690b
date added to LUP
2016-10-17 17:12:14
date last changed
2017-08-30 11:20:37
@inbook{a423424b-28ba-43ad-896b-c1f218cb690b,
  abstract     = {Bananas are widely consumed fruits with over 140 metric tons produced annually. As much as 336 metric tons of banana pseudo-stems, sheaths, piths, peels and leaves are produced annually. These wastes are usually discarded via composting, aerobic decomposition, incinerated or simply allowed to rot in the fields. However, these treatments may cause serious environmental and ecological problems. <br/>     Meantime, banana wastes are high in organic content that can be converted to a renewable energy. Renewable energy generation technologies such anaerobic digestion (AD), dark fermentation and ethanol fermentation are commonly reported in scientific literature. This chapter deals with the usability of banana waste as feedstock for bio-energy (in the form of biogas bio-hydrogen and bio-ethanol) production and various pre-treatments commonly applied prior to these processes. <br/>     AD process is a four-step sequential process whereby bacteria and Archaea break organic matter in the absence of oxygen to produce a mixture of gases (biogas), amongst them energy-rich methane. The generated biogas can be upgraded to bio-methane that can be a substitute for natural gas. The AD process is widely recognized as a promising, robust, low-cost technique for treatment of various organic wastes streams with or without pre-treatment. AD is also easy to perform and the residue from the process called digestate can be used as a bio-fertilizer. Banana residues may become a feedstock of choice in the AD process because of its low lignin content and high biodegradability.<br/>     There are several bacteria with a potential for hydrogen production through dark fermentation. In recent years, extreme thermophilic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor sp. have emerged as bacteria of choice for hydrogen production because of high rates and high yields. For banana residues to be used as feedstock for hydrogen production through dark fermentation it must be pre-treated to release organic acids such as acetic and butyric acids, which are preferred substrates for Caldicellulosiruptor sp. Pre-treatments to yield simple sugars such as glucose and sucrose can also be employed when a mixed culture is used as the seed for hydrogen production.<br/>Various types of yeast have been used for ethanol production from glucose (6 carbons), xylose (5 carbons) or both. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model eukaryotic organism, often used in such research because it is easy to manipulate and culture, and is comparatively similar in structure to human cells. As with dark fermentation, there is a need for a pre-treatment before one can use banana residues for ethanol fermentation as the yeast can only use reduced organic forms such as glucose and xylose.<br/>      There is also the possible of combined hydrogen or combined ethanol and biogas production thereby maximizing energy yields and producing a valuable fertilizer from the digestate (after AD). In such a scenario, a closed loop can be created.},
  author       = {LI, Chao and Liu, Jing and Ivo Achu, Nges and Fang, J},
  editor       = {Pearson, Valerie},
  isbn         = {9781634854184},
  keyword      = {Waste treatment,Sustainability,Renewable energy,Bio-fertilizer,Banana waste},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {69--89},
  publisher    = {Nova Science Publishers, Inc.},
  series       = {Agriculture issues and policies},
  title        = {Sustainable Management of Banana Waste through Renewable Energy and Bio-Fertilizer Generation},
  year         = {2016},
}