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Sex differences in bone size and bone mineral density exist before puberty. The Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)

Hasselstrom, H. ; Karlsson, Magnus LU ; Hansen, S. E. ; Gronfeldt, V. ; Froberg, K. and Andersen, L. B. (2006) In Calcified Tissue International 79(1). p.7-14
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to provide normative data of bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(2)) of the forearm and the calcaneus, evaluated by peripheral dual X ray absorbtiometry (DXA), in children aged 6 to 7 years of age and to evaluate the association with anthropometrics and sex. Materials and methods: 368 boys and 326 girls with a mean age of 6.7 +/- 0.4 years participated. BMD was measured by DXA in the forearms and the os calcanei, with average values presented in this report. Measurements of weight, height, skinfolds, the width of distal radius and ulna, and the femur condyles were collected and body composition estimated from skinfolds measurements. Results: There was no difference in calcaneus BMD when comparing boys and... (More)
Background: The aim of this study was to provide normative data of bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(2)) of the forearm and the calcaneus, evaluated by peripheral dual X ray absorbtiometry (DXA), in children aged 6 to 7 years of age and to evaluate the association with anthropometrics and sex. Materials and methods: 368 boys and 326 girls with a mean age of 6.7 +/- 0.4 years participated. BMD was measured by DXA in the forearms and the os calcanei, with average values presented in this report. Measurements of weight, height, skinfolds, the width of distal radius and ulna, and the femur condyles were collected and body composition estimated from skinfolds measurements. Results: There was no difference in calcaneus BMD when comparing boys and girls, whereas the boys had 4.5% (0.013 g/cm(2)) higher forearm BMD than the girls (P < 0.001). Calcaneal BMD (mean 0.318 g/cm(2)) was 11% higher than forearm BMD (mean 0.283 g/cm(2)). Linear relationship was found between calcaneus BMD and weight (partial r = 0.50), Fat free mass (FFM) (partial r = 0.50), Fat mass (FM) (partial r = 0.45), % body fat (partial r = 0.29) and knee width (partial r = 0.46), all P < 0.000 respectively. Adjusted for weight the relationship between calcaneus BMD and FFM, FM, %body fat and knee width disappeared. There were significant relationships between the forearm BMD and weight (partial r = 0.37), FFM (partial r = 0.39), FM (partial r = 0.28), %body fat (partial r = 0.14) and wrist width (partial r = 0.24), all P < 0.000 respectively. Adjusted for body weight, the relationship remained between forearm BMD and FFM (r = 0.10), FM (R = -0.10) and % body fat (r = -0.12), all P < 0.000 respectively. Children measured in the spring had 3.5% (P < 0.01) higher calcaneus BMD than children measured in the winter. Conclusion: Seven year old boys have higher BMD in the forearm but not in the calcaneus in comparison with girls of a similar age. Body weight is the best predictor of calcaneus BMD, accounting for 25% of the variance whereas body weight and FFM are the best predictors of forearm BMD, each accounting for 17% of the variance, respectively. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
children, peripheral bone mineral density, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, anthropometrics and body composition
in
Calcified Tissue International
volume
79
issue
1
pages
7 - 14
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • wos:000239589900002
  • pmid:16868665
  • scopus:33746913156
  • pmid:16868665
ISSN
1432-0827
DOI
10.1007/s00223-006-0012-8
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
a5cb2192-d43a-407e-81d1-c6145d7b3a3a (old id 398504)
date added to LUP
2016-04-01 16:20:39
date last changed
2020-01-12 19:16:50
@article{a5cb2192-d43a-407e-81d1-c6145d7b3a3a,
  abstract     = {Background: The aim of this study was to provide normative data of bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(2)) of the forearm and the calcaneus, evaluated by peripheral dual X ray absorbtiometry (DXA), in children aged 6 to 7 years of age and to evaluate the association with anthropometrics and sex. Materials and methods: 368 boys and 326 girls with a mean age of 6.7 +/- 0.4 years participated. BMD was measured by DXA in the forearms and the os calcanei, with average values presented in this report. Measurements of weight, height, skinfolds, the width of distal radius and ulna, and the femur condyles were collected and body composition estimated from skinfolds measurements. Results: There was no difference in calcaneus BMD when comparing boys and girls, whereas the boys had 4.5% (0.013 g/cm(2)) higher forearm BMD than the girls (P &lt; 0.001). Calcaneal BMD (mean 0.318 g/cm(2)) was 11% higher than forearm BMD (mean 0.283 g/cm(2)). Linear relationship was found between calcaneus BMD and weight (partial r = 0.50), Fat free mass (FFM) (partial r = 0.50), Fat mass (FM) (partial r = 0.45), % body fat (partial r = 0.29) and knee width (partial r = 0.46), all P &lt; 0.000 respectively. Adjusted for weight the relationship between calcaneus BMD and FFM, FM, %body fat and knee width disappeared. There were significant relationships between the forearm BMD and weight (partial r = 0.37), FFM (partial r = 0.39), FM (partial r = 0.28), %body fat (partial r = 0.14) and wrist width (partial r = 0.24), all P &lt; 0.000 respectively. Adjusted for body weight, the relationship remained between forearm BMD and FFM (r = 0.10), FM (R = -0.10) and % body fat (r = -0.12), all P &lt; 0.000 respectively. Children measured in the spring had 3.5% (P &lt; 0.01) higher calcaneus BMD than children measured in the winter. Conclusion: Seven year old boys have higher BMD in the forearm but not in the calcaneus in comparison with girls of a similar age. Body weight is the best predictor of calcaneus BMD, accounting for 25% of the variance whereas body weight and FFM are the best predictors of forearm BMD, each accounting for 17% of the variance, respectively.},
  author       = {Hasselstrom, H. and Karlsson, Magnus and Hansen, S. E. and Gronfeldt, V. and Froberg, K. and Andersen, L. B.},
  issn         = {1432-0827},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {7--14},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Calcified Tissue International},
  title        = {Sex differences in bone size and bone mineral density exist before puberty. The Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-006-0012-8},
  doi          = {10.1007/s00223-006-0012-8},
  volume       = {79},
  year         = {2006},
}