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Comparison of the Regenerative Potential for Lung Tissue of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Different Sources/Locations Within the Body

Rolandsson Enes, Sara LU and Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla LU (2019) p.35-55
Abstract
To date, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been considered the golden standard among MSC cell-based therapies. However, the harvesting of bone marrow is a highly invasive procedure and the number of MSCs isolated is low, and it declines with increasing age. MSCs with immune-regulatory and regenerative properties can be isolated from many different tissues; however, bone marrow-derived MSCs are so far the most thoroughly characterized MSC population. Despite an increased interest in using MSCs for clinical approaches in severe lung disorders, the biological function of MSCs after administration is not completely known, in particular, of MSCs extracted from other tissues than bone marrow aspirates. MSCs do not engraft... (More)
To date, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been considered the golden standard among MSC cell-based therapies. However, the harvesting of bone marrow is a highly invasive procedure and the number of MSCs isolated is low, and it declines with increasing age. MSCs with immune-regulatory and regenerative properties can be isolated from many different tissues; however, bone marrow-derived MSCs are so far the most thoroughly characterized MSC population. Despite an increased interest in using MSCs for clinical approaches in severe lung disorders, the biological function of MSCs after administration is not completely known, in particular, of MSCs extracted from other tissues than bone marrow aspirates. MSCs do not engraft after infusion, and data demonstrate that the majority of MSCs tend to be cleared from the lungs within a few days, suggesting a fast, short acting, and paracrine effect. Following activation, MSCs produce and secrete mediators, the secretome, that influence the microenvironment and the surrounding resident cells in order to modulate and repair damaged tissue. Exploring the MSC secretome has attracted much attention, and today it is known to consist of an array of molecules that is important for their regenerative and protective abilities. However, recent data suggest that the secretome profiles differ significantly depending on the MSC source, donor site, and external stimulation. In addition, the microenvironment that the infused MSCs encounter most likely plays an important role in influencing the therapeutic effect of MSCs. The composition of the microenvironment is unique in every tissue type and varies by developmental age. Changes in both stiffness and composition drastically affect MSC fate and function. The aim of this chapter is to provide a comparison of the potential of MSCs obtained from different cellular sources, and how they can be used as therapeutic agents to treat lung disorders. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive life-threatening disease that is significantly increasing in prevalence and is predicted to become the third leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. At present, there are no true curative treatments that can stop the progression of the disease, and new therapeutic strategies are desperately needed. Advances in cell-based therapies provide a platform for the development of new therapeutic approaches in severe lung diseases such as COPD. At present, a lot of focus is on mesenchymal stem (stromal) cell (MSC)-based therapies, mainly due to their immunomodulatory properties. Despite increasing number of preclinical studies demonstrating that systemic MSC administration can prevent... (More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive life-threatening disease that is significantly increasing in prevalence and is predicted to become the third leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. At present, there are no true curative treatments that can stop the progression of the disease, and new therapeutic strategies are desperately needed. Advances in cell-based therapies provide a platform for the development of new therapeutic approaches in severe lung diseases such as COPD. At present, a lot of focus is on mesenchymal stem (stromal) cell (MSC)-based therapies, mainly due to their immunomodulatory properties. Despite increasing number of preclinical studies demonstrating that systemic MSC administration can prevent or treat experimental COPD and emphysema, clinical studies have not been able to reproduce the preclinical results and to date no efficacy or significantly improved lung function or quality of life has been observed in COPD patients. Importantly, the completed appropriately conducted clinical trials uniformly demonstrate that MSC treatment in COPD patients is well tolerated and no toxicities have been observed. All clinical trials performed so far, have been phase I/II studies, underpowered for the detection of potential efficacy. There are several challenges ahead for this field such as standardized isolation and culture procedures to obtain a cell product with high quality and reproducibility, administration strategies, improvement of methods to measure outcomes, and development of potency assays. Moreover, COPD is a complex pathology with a diverse spectrum of clinical phenotypes, and therefore it is essential to develop methods to select the subpopulation of patients that is most likely to potentially respond to MSC administration. In this chapter, we will discuss the current state of the art of MSC-based cell therapy for COPD and the hurdles that need to be overcome. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding
publication status
published
subject
host publication
Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Lung Disease
editor
Burgess, Janette ; Hekjink, Irene ; and
pages
35 - 55
publisher
Springer, Cham
ISBN
978-3-030-29402-1
978-3-030-29403-8
DOI
10.1007/978-3-030-29403-8_3
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
aecec064-b9d4-4d59-91de-24326b67aac5
date added to LUP
2019-11-26 16:16:46
date last changed
2019-12-02 12:51:42
@inbook{aecec064-b9d4-4d59-91de-24326b67aac5,
  abstract     = {To date, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been considered the golden standard among MSC cell-based therapies. However, the harvesting of bone marrow is a highly invasive procedure and the number of MSCs isolated is low, and it declines with increasing age. MSCs with immune-regulatory and regenerative properties can be isolated from many different tissues; however, bone marrow-derived MSCs are so far the most thoroughly characterized MSC population. Despite an increased interest in using MSCs for clinical approaches in severe lung disorders, the biological function of MSCs after administration is not completely known, in particular, of MSCs extracted from other tissues than bone marrow aspirates. MSCs do not engraft after infusion, and data demonstrate that the majority of MSCs tend to be cleared from the lungs within a few days, suggesting a fast, short acting, and paracrine effect. Following activation, MSCs produce and secrete mediators, the secretome, that influence the microenvironment and the surrounding resident cells in order to modulate and repair damaged tissue. Exploring the MSC secretome has attracted much attention, and today it is known to consist of an array of molecules that is important for their regenerative and protective abilities. However, recent data suggest that the secretome profiles differ significantly depending on the MSC source, donor site, and external stimulation. In addition, the microenvironment that the infused MSCs encounter most likely plays an important role in influencing the therapeutic effect of MSCs. The composition of the microenvironment is unique in every tissue type and varies by developmental age. Changes in both stiffness and composition drastically affect MSC fate and function. The aim of this chapter is to provide a comparison of the potential of MSCs obtained from different cellular sources, and how they can be used as therapeutic agents to treat lung disorders.},
  author       = {Rolandsson Enes, Sara and Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla},
  booktitle    = {Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Lung Disease},
  editor       = {Burgess, Janette and Hekjink, Irene},
  isbn         = {978-3-030-29402-1},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {11},
  pages        = {35--55},
  publisher    = {Springer, Cham},
  title        = {Comparison of the Regenerative Potential for Lung Tissue of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Different Sources/Locations Within the Body},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-29403-8_3},
  doi          = {10.1007/978-3-030-29403-8_3},
  year         = {2019},
}