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Impact of urban water supply on energy use in China : a provincial and national comparison

Smith, Kate; Liu, Shuming; Liu, Yi; Savic, Dragan; Olsson, Gustaf LU ; Chang, Tian and Wu, Xue (2016) In Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 21(8). p.1213-1233
Abstract

To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and help mitigate climate change, urban water systems need to be adapted so that electrical energy use is minimised. In this study, energy data from 2011 was used to quantify energy use in China’s urban water supply sector. The objective was to calculate the energy co-benefits of urban water conservation policies and compare energy use between China and other countries. The study investigated influencing factors with the aim of informing the development of energy efficient urban water infrastructure. The average energy use per cubic metre and per capita for urban water supply in China in 2011 was 0.29 kWh/m3 and 33.2 kWh/cap year, respectively. Total GHG emissions associated with... (More)

To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and help mitigate climate change, urban water systems need to be adapted so that electrical energy use is minimised. In this study, energy data from 2011 was used to quantify energy use in China’s urban water supply sector. The objective was to calculate the energy co-benefits of urban water conservation policies and compare energy use between China and other countries. The study investigated influencing factors with the aim of informing the development of energy efficient urban water infrastructure. The average energy use per cubic metre and per capita for urban water supply in China in 2011 was 0.29 kWh/m3 and 33.2 kWh/cap year, respectively. Total GHG emissions associated with energy use in the urban water supply sector were 7.63 MtCO2e, or carbon dioxide equivalent. Calculations using these indicators showed significant energy savings could result from water conservation measures. A comparison between provinces of China showed a direct correlation between energy intensity of urban water supply and the population served per unit length of pipe. This may imply energy and emission intensity can be reduced if more densely populated areas are supplied by a corresponding pipe density, rather than by a low-density network operating at higher flow rates. This study also found that while the percentage of electrical energy used for urban water supply tended to increase with the percentage of population served, this increase was slower where water supply was more energy efficient and where a larger percentage of population was already supplied.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
China, Climate change, Electrical energy use, Greenhouse gas emissions, Sustainability, Water infrastructure, Water supply, Water-energy nexus
in
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change
volume
21
issue
8
pages
21 pages
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • scopus:84926206550
  • wos:000387617200004
ISSN
1381-2386
DOI
10.1007/s11027-015-9648-x
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
af9b8657-fd45-410c-9bdb-0b28e92680d3
date added to LUP
2016-11-25 09:01:00
date last changed
2017-09-12 11:38:45
@article{af9b8657-fd45-410c-9bdb-0b28e92680d3,
  abstract     = {<p>To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and help mitigate climate change, urban water systems need to be adapted so that electrical energy use is minimised. In this study, energy data from 2011 was used to quantify energy use in China’s urban water supply sector. The objective was to calculate the energy co-benefits of urban water conservation policies and compare energy use between China and other countries. The study investigated influencing factors with the aim of informing the development of energy efficient urban water infrastructure. The average energy use per cubic metre and per capita for urban water supply in China in 2011 was 0.29 kWh/m<sup>3</sup> and 33.2 kWh/cap year, respectively. Total GHG emissions associated with energy use in the urban water supply sector were 7.63 MtCO<sub>2</sub>e, or carbon dioxide equivalent. Calculations using these indicators showed significant energy savings could result from water conservation measures. A comparison between provinces of China showed a direct correlation between energy intensity of urban water supply and the population served per unit length of pipe. This may imply energy and emission intensity can be reduced if more densely populated areas are supplied by a corresponding pipe density, rather than by a low-density network operating at higher flow rates. This study also found that while the percentage of electrical energy used for urban water supply tended to increase with the percentage of population served, this increase was slower where water supply was more energy efficient and where a larger percentage of population was already supplied.</p>},
  author       = {Smith, Kate and Liu, Shuming and Liu, Yi and Savic, Dragan and Olsson, Gustaf and Chang, Tian and Wu, Xue},
  issn         = {1381-2386},
  keyword      = {China,Climate change,Electrical energy use,Greenhouse gas emissions,Sustainability,Water infrastructure,Water supply,Water-energy nexus},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {12},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {1213--1233},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change},
  title        = {Impact of urban water supply on energy use in China : a provincial and national comparison},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11027-015-9648-x},
  volume       = {21},
  year         = {2016},
}