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Smoking and the risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Rohrmann, S.; Linseisen, J.; Allen, N.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Johnsen, N. F.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Kaaks, R.; Teucher, B. and Boeing, H., et al. (2013) In British Journal of Cancer 108(3). p.708-714
Abstract
Background: Smoking is not associated with prostate cancer incidence in most studies, but associations between smoking and fatal prostate cancer have been reported. Methods: During 1992 and 2000, lifestyle information was assessed via questionnaires and personal interview in a cohort of 145112 European men. Until 2009, 4623 incident cases of prostate cancer were identified, including 1517 cases of low-grade, 396 cases of high grade, 1516 cases of localised, 808 cases of advanced disease, and 432 fatal cases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking duration with the risk of incident and fatal prostate cancer. Results: Compared with never... (More)
Background: Smoking is not associated with prostate cancer incidence in most studies, but associations between smoking and fatal prostate cancer have been reported. Methods: During 1992 and 2000, lifestyle information was assessed via questionnaires and personal interview in a cohort of 145112 European men. Until 2009, 4623 incident cases of prostate cancer were identified, including 1517 cases of low-grade, 396 cases of high grade, 1516 cases of localised, 808 cases of advanced disease, and 432 fatal cases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking duration with the risk of incident and fatal prostate cancer. Results: Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a reduced risk of prostate cancer (RR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.97), which was statistically significant for localised and low-grade disease, but not for advanced or high-grade disease. In contrast, heavy smokers (25+ cigarettes per day) and men who had smoked for a long time (40+ years) had a higher risk of prostate cancer death (RR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.11-2.93; RR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.01-1.87, respectively). Conclusion: The observation of an increased prostate cancer mortality among heavy smokers confirms the results of previous prospective studies. (Less)
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@article{c8077f9d-0111-4283-b417-eb4be62e2683,
  abstract     = {Background: Smoking is not associated with prostate cancer incidence in most studies, but associations between smoking and fatal prostate cancer have been reported. Methods: During 1992 and 2000, lifestyle information was assessed via questionnaires and personal interview in a cohort of 145112 European men. Until 2009, 4623 incident cases of prostate cancer were identified, including 1517 cases of low-grade, 396 cases of high grade, 1516 cases of localised, 808 cases of advanced disease, and 432 fatal cases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking duration with the risk of incident and fatal prostate cancer. Results: Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a reduced risk of prostate cancer (RR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.97), which was statistically significant for localised and low-grade disease, but not for advanced or high-grade disease. In contrast, heavy smokers (25+ cigarettes per day) and men who had smoked for a long time (40+ years) had a higher risk of prostate cancer death (RR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.11-2.93; RR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.01-1.87, respectively). Conclusion: The observation of an increased prostate cancer mortality among heavy smokers confirms the results of previous prospective studies.},
  author       = {Rohrmann, S. and Linseisen, J. and Allen, N. and Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B. and Johnsen, N. F. and Tjonneland, A. and Overvad, K. and Kaaks, R. and Teucher, B. and Boeing, H. and Pischon, T. and Lagiou, P. and Trichopoulou, A. and Trichopoulos, D. and Palli, D. and Krogh, Vittorio and Tunnino, R. and Ricceri, F. and Argueelles Suarez, M. V. and Agudo, A. and Sanchez, M-J and Chirlaque, M-D and Barricarte, A. and Larranaga, N. and Boshuizen, H. and van Kranen, H. J. and Stettin, P. and Johansson, M. and Bjartell, Anders and Ulmert, David and Khaw, K-T and Wareham, N. J. and Ferrari, Pietro and Romieux, I. and Gunter, M. J. R. and Riboli, Elio and Key, T. J.},
  issn         = {1532-1827},
  keyword      = {smoking,prostate cancer,cohort study,EPIC},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {708--714},
  publisher    = {Nature Publishing Group},
  series       = {British Journal of Cancer},
  title        = {Smoking and the risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2012.520},
  volume       = {108},
  year         = {2013},
}