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Impact of menstrual function on hormonal response to repeated bouts of intense exercise

Melin, Anna K. LU ; Ritz, Christian; Faber, Jens; Skouby, Sven; Pingel, Jessica; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Sjödin, Anders and Tornberg, Åsa B. LU (2019) In Frontiers in Physiology 10(JUL).
Abstract

Background: Strenous exercise stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis in order to ensure homeostasis and promote anabolism. Furthermore, exercise stimulates a transient increase in the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) suggested to mediate the anxiolytic effects of exercise. Athletes with secondary functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) have been reported to have lower BDNF, and a blunted HP axis response to exercise as athletes with overtraining syndrome. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the hormonal and BDNF responses to a two-bout maximal exercise protocol with four hours of recovery in between in FHA and eumenorrheic (EUM) athletes. Methods: Eumenorrheic (n = 16) and FHA (n = 14) endurance... (More)

Background: Strenous exercise stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis in order to ensure homeostasis and promote anabolism. Furthermore, exercise stimulates a transient increase in the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) suggested to mediate the anxiolytic effects of exercise. Athletes with secondary functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) have been reported to have lower BDNF, and a blunted HP axis response to exercise as athletes with overtraining syndrome. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the hormonal and BDNF responses to a two-bout maximal exercise protocol with four hours of recovery in between in FHA and eumenorrheic (EUM) athletes. Methods: Eumenorrheic (n = 16) and FHA (n = 14) endurance athletes were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination; body composition (DXA); 7-day assessment of energy availability; blood sampling pre and post the two exercises tests. Results: There were no differences between groups in hormonal responses to the first exercise bout. After the second exercise bout IGFBP-3 increased more in FHA compared with EUM athletes (2.1 ± 0.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.6 µg/L, p = 0.048). There were non-significant trends toward higher increase in IGF-1 (39.3 ± 4.3 vs. 28.0 ± 4.6 µg/L, p = 0.074), BDNF (96.5 ± 22.9 vs. 34.4 ± 23.5 µg/L, p = 0.058), GH to cortisol ratio (0.329 ± 0.010 vs. 0.058 ± 0.010, p = 0.082), and decrease in IGF-1 to IGFBP-3 ratio (−2.04 ± 1.2 vs. 0.92 ± 1.22, p = 0.081) in athletes with FHA compared with EUM athletes. Furthermore, there was a non-significant trend toward a higher increase in prolactin to cortisol ratio in EUM athletes compared with athletes with FHA (0.60 ± 0.15 vs. 0.23 ± 0.15, p = 0.071). No differences in the hormonal or BDNF responses between the two exercise bouts as a result of menstrual function were found. Conclusion: No major differences in the hormonal or BDNF responses between the two exercise bouts as a result of menstrual function could be detected.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Amenorrhea, Brain derived neuronal factor, Energy availability, Female athlete, Overtraining syndrome
in
Frontiers in Physiology
volume
10
issue
JUL
publisher
Frontiers
external identifiers
  • scopus:85070571785
ISSN
1664-042X
DOI
10.3389/fphys.2019.00942
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
d29db766-ea85-415b-8752-0b63cd05bcf1
date added to LUP
2019-08-27 11:43:05
date last changed
2019-09-17 04:59:30
@article{d29db766-ea85-415b-8752-0b63cd05bcf1,
  abstract     = {<p>Background: Strenous exercise stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis in order to ensure homeostasis and promote anabolism. Furthermore, exercise stimulates a transient increase in the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) suggested to mediate the anxiolytic effects of exercise. Athletes with secondary functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) have been reported to have lower BDNF, and a blunted HP axis response to exercise as athletes with overtraining syndrome. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the hormonal and BDNF responses to a two-bout maximal exercise protocol with four hours of recovery in between in FHA and eumenorrheic (EUM) athletes. Methods: Eumenorrheic (n = 16) and FHA (n = 14) endurance athletes were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination; body composition (DXA); 7-day assessment of energy availability; blood sampling pre and post the two exercises tests. Results: There were no differences between groups in hormonal responses to the first exercise bout. After the second exercise bout IGFBP-3 increased more in FHA compared with EUM athletes (2.1 ± 0.5 vs. 0.6 ± 0.6 µg/L, p = 0.048). There were non-significant trends toward higher increase in IGF-1 (39.3 ± 4.3 vs. 28.0 ± 4.6 µg/L, p = 0.074), BDNF (96.5 ± 22.9 vs. 34.4 ± 23.5 µg/L, p = 0.058), GH to cortisol ratio (0.329 ± 0.010 vs. 0.058 ± 0.010, p = 0.082), and decrease in IGF-1 to IGFBP-3 ratio (−2.04 ± 1.2 vs. 0.92 ± 1.22, p = 0.081) in athletes with FHA compared with EUM athletes. Furthermore, there was a non-significant trend toward a higher increase in prolactin to cortisol ratio in EUM athletes compared with athletes with FHA (0.60 ± 0.15 vs. 0.23 ± 0.15, p = 0.071). No differences in the hormonal or BDNF responses between the two exercise bouts as a result of menstrual function were found. Conclusion: No major differences in the hormonal or BDNF responses between the two exercise bouts as a result of menstrual function could be detected.</p>},
  articleno    = {942},
  author       = {Melin, Anna K. and Ritz, Christian and Faber, Jens and Skouby, Sven and Pingel, Jessica and Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn and Sjödin, Anders and Tornberg, Åsa B.},
  issn         = {1664-042X},
  keyword      = {Amenorrhea,Brain derived neuronal factor,Energy availability,Female athlete,Overtraining syndrome},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {JUL},
  publisher    = {Frontiers},
  series       = {Frontiers in Physiology},
  title        = {Impact of menstrual function on hormonal response to repeated bouts of intense exercise},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00942},
  volume       = {10},
  year         = {2019},
}