Advanced

Genome-Wide DNA and Histone Modification Studies in Metabolic Disease

Ling, Charlotte LU and Rönn, Tina LU (2015) In Epigenomics in Health and Disease p.255-270
Abstract

The last decade has witnessed a revolution in genetic technology, where genome-wide analyses, covering the majority of genetic variation, were thought to explain disease-causing mechanisms in common metabolic disorders. However, these genetic data only explain a modest proportion of the estimated heritability of type 2 diabetes and obesity and hence suggest a potential role for epigenetic variation in the etiology of metabolic disease. Indeed, recent genome-wide epigenetic studies have identified altered DNA methylation patterns in human pancreatic islets, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and blood from subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with normal subjects. Also, measures of obesity, such as increased body mass index (BMI), have... (More)

The last decade has witnessed a revolution in genetic technology, where genome-wide analyses, covering the majority of genetic variation, were thought to explain disease-causing mechanisms in common metabolic disorders. However, these genetic data only explain a modest proportion of the estimated heritability of type 2 diabetes and obesity and hence suggest a potential role for epigenetic variation in the etiology of metabolic disease. Indeed, recent genome-wide epigenetic studies have identified altered DNA methylation patterns in human pancreatic islets, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and blood from subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with normal subjects. Also, measures of obesity, such as increased body mass index (BMI), have been associated with epigenetic modifications in humans. It should also be noted that environmental risk factors for metabolic disease, for example, energy-rich diets, physical inactivity, and aging have been found to alter the epigenetic pattern genome-wide and in candidate genes for type 2 diabetes and obesity in human tissues. Additionally, interactions between genetic and epigenetic variations seem to contribute to the risk for metabolic disease. Together, genome-wide epigenetic studies highlight the importance of altered DNA methylation and histone modifications in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease. This chapter aims at summarizing current knowledge in the field of metabolic disease and genome-wide epigenetic analyses in humans.

(Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Adipose tissue, DNA methylation, Epigenetics, Genome-wide, Histone modifications, Human, Metabolic disease, Obesity, Pancreatic islets, Skeletal muscle, Type 2 diabetes
in
Epigenomics in Health and Disease
pages
16 pages
publisher
Elsevier Inc.
external identifiers
  • scopus:84980398345
ISBN
9780128001400
9780128004968
DOI
10.1016/B978-0-12-800140-0.00012-1
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
e7afbfa9-d344-43e2-9e3f-6e6cb2657480
date added to LUP
2016-12-22 10:46:02
date last changed
2017-01-01 08:44:14
@inbook{e7afbfa9-d344-43e2-9e3f-6e6cb2657480,
  abstract     = {<p>The last decade has witnessed a revolution in genetic technology, where genome-wide analyses, covering the majority of genetic variation, were thought to explain disease-causing mechanisms in common metabolic disorders. However, these genetic data only explain a modest proportion of the estimated heritability of type 2 diabetes and obesity and hence suggest a potential role for epigenetic variation in the etiology of metabolic disease. Indeed, recent genome-wide epigenetic studies have identified altered DNA methylation patterns in human pancreatic islets, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and blood from subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with normal subjects. Also, measures of obesity, such as increased body mass index (BMI), have been associated with epigenetic modifications in humans. It should also be noted that environmental risk factors for metabolic disease, for example, energy-rich diets, physical inactivity, and aging have been found to alter the epigenetic pattern genome-wide and in candidate genes for type 2 diabetes and obesity in human tissues. Additionally, interactions between genetic and epigenetic variations seem to contribute to the risk for metabolic disease. Together, genome-wide epigenetic studies highlight the importance of altered DNA methylation and histone modifications in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease. This chapter aims at summarizing current knowledge in the field of metabolic disease and genome-wide epigenetic analyses in humans.</p>},
  author       = {Ling, Charlotte and Rönn, Tina},
  isbn         = {9780128001400},
  keyword      = {Adipose tissue,DNA methylation,Epigenetics,Genome-wide,Histone modifications,Human,Metabolic disease,Obesity,Pancreatic islets,Skeletal muscle,Type 2 diabetes},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {10},
  pages        = {255--270},
  publisher    = {Elsevier Inc.},
  series       = {Epigenomics in Health and Disease},
  title        = {Genome-Wide DNA and Histone Modification Studies in Metabolic Disease},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800140-0.00012-1},
  year         = {2015},
}