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Core level shifts of intercalated graphene

Schröder, Ulrike A; Petrović, Marin; Gerber, Timm; Martínez-Galera, Antonio J; Grånäs, Elin LU ; Arman, Mohammad A. LU ; Herbig, Charlotte; Schnadt, Joachim LU ; Kralj, Marko and Knudsen, Jan LU , et al. (2017) In 2D Materials 4(1).
Abstract

Through intercalation of metals and gases the Dirac cone of graphene on Ir(111) can be shifted with respect to the Fermi level without becoming destroyed by strong hybridization. Here, we use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the C 1s core level shift (CLS) of graphene in contact with a number of structurally well-defined intercalation layers (O, H, Eu, and Cs). By analysis of our own and additional literature data for decoupled graphene, the C 1s CLS is found to be a non-monotonic function of the doping level. For small doping levels the shifts are well described by a rigid band model. However, at larger doping levels, a second effect comes into play which is proportional to the transferred charge and counteracts the rigid... (More)

Through intercalation of metals and gases the Dirac cone of graphene on Ir(111) can be shifted with respect to the Fermi level without becoming destroyed by strong hybridization. Here, we use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the C 1s core level shift (CLS) of graphene in contact with a number of structurally well-defined intercalation layers (O, H, Eu, and Cs). By analysis of our own and additional literature data for decoupled graphene, the C 1s CLS is found to be a non-monotonic function of the doping level. For small doping levels the shifts are well described by a rigid band model. However, at larger doping levels, a second effect comes into play which is proportional to the transferred charge and counteracts the rigid band shift. Moreover, not only the position, but also the C 1s peak shape displays a unique evolution as a function of doping level. Our conclusions are supported by intercalation experiments with Li, with which, due to the absence of phase separation, the doping level of graphene can be continuously tuned.

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publication status
published
subject
keywords
Core level shifts, Graphene, Intercalation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
in
2D Materials
volume
4
issue
1
publisher
IOP Publishing
external identifiers
  • scopus:85014469984
  • wos:000387905600001
ISSN
2053-1583
DOI
10.1088/2053-1583/4/1/015013
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
f2f5e83e-84a9-493b-b85e-3997cd85d7f5
date added to LUP
2017-03-15 07:49:30
date last changed
2018-04-22 04:27:25
@article{f2f5e83e-84a9-493b-b85e-3997cd85d7f5,
  abstract     = {<p>Through intercalation of metals and gases the Dirac cone of graphene on Ir(111) can be shifted with respect to the Fermi level without becoming destroyed by strong hybridization. Here, we use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the C 1s core level shift (CLS) of graphene in contact with a number of structurally well-defined intercalation layers (O, H, Eu, and Cs). By analysis of our own and additional literature data for decoupled graphene, the C 1s CLS is found to be a non-monotonic function of the doping level. For small doping levels the shifts are well described by a rigid band model. However, at larger doping levels, a second effect comes into play which is proportional to the transferred charge and counteracts the rigid band shift. Moreover, not only the position, but also the C 1s peak shape displays a unique evolution as a function of doping level. Our conclusions are supported by intercalation experiments with Li, with which, due to the absence of phase separation, the doping level of graphene can be continuously tuned.</p>},
  articleno    = {015013},
  author       = {Schröder, Ulrike A and Petrović, Marin and Gerber, Timm and Martínez-Galera, Antonio J and Grånäs, Elin and Arman, Mohammad A. and Herbig, Charlotte and Schnadt, Joachim and Kralj, Marko and Knudsen, Jan and Michely, Thomas},
  issn         = {2053-1583},
  keyword      = {Core level shifts,Graphene,Intercalation,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {03},
  number       = {1},
  publisher    = {IOP Publishing},
  series       = {2D Materials},
  title        = {Core level shifts of intercalated graphene},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2053-1583/4/1/015013},
  volume       = {4},
  year         = {2017},
}