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Epigenetics in Human Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

Ling, Charlotte LU and Rönn, Tina LU (2019) In Cell Metabolism 29(5). p.1028-1044
Abstract

Epigenetic mechanisms control gene activity and the development of an organism. The epigenome includes DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA-mediated processes, and disruption of this balance may cause several pathologies and contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This Review summarizes epigenetic signatures obtained from human tissues of relevance for metabolism—i.e., adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islets, liver, and blood—in relation to obesity and T2D. Although this research field is still young, these comprehensive data support not only a role for epigenetics in disease development, but also epigenetic alterations as a response to disease. Genetic predisposition, as well as aging, contribute to... (More)

Epigenetic mechanisms control gene activity and the development of an organism. The epigenome includes DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA-mediated processes, and disruption of this balance may cause several pathologies and contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This Review summarizes epigenetic signatures obtained from human tissues of relevance for metabolism—i.e., adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islets, liver, and blood—in relation to obesity and T2D. Although this research field is still young, these comprehensive data support not only a role for epigenetics in disease development, but also epigenetic alterations as a response to disease. Genetic predisposition, as well as aging, contribute to epigenetic variability, and several environmental factors, including exercise and diet, further interact with the human epigenome. The reversible nature of epigenetic modifications holds promise for future therapeutic strategies in obesity and T2D. Epigenetic factors are suggested to contribute to metabolic dysfunctions. In this Review, Ling and Rönn summarize evidence for altered DNA methylation, both as a cause and a consequence of human obesity and type 2 diabetes. As epigenetic alterations are dynamic in nature, they may also provide targets for drug development.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
aging, diet, DNA methylation, epigenetics, exercise, histone modifications, obesity, physical activity, prediction, type 2 diabetes
in
Cell Metabolism
volume
29
issue
5
pages
17 pages
publisher
Cell Press
external identifiers
  • scopus:85064905586
ISSN
1550-4131
DOI
10.1016/j.cmet.2019.03.009
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
f6bdef18-f110-4d6e-a25e-5a37cfa776af
date added to LUP
2019-05-13 14:23:39
date last changed
2019-08-14 04:36:36
@article{f6bdef18-f110-4d6e-a25e-5a37cfa776af,
  abstract     = {<p>Epigenetic mechanisms control gene activity and the development of an organism. The epigenome includes DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA-mediated processes, and disruption of this balance may cause several pathologies and contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This Review summarizes epigenetic signatures obtained from human tissues of relevance for metabolism—i.e., adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islets, liver, and blood—in relation to obesity and T2D. Although this research field is still young, these comprehensive data support not only a role for epigenetics in disease development, but also epigenetic alterations as a response to disease. Genetic predisposition, as well as aging, contribute to epigenetic variability, and several environmental factors, including exercise and diet, further interact with the human epigenome. The reversible nature of epigenetic modifications holds promise for future therapeutic strategies in obesity and T2D. Epigenetic factors are suggested to contribute to metabolic dysfunctions. In this Review, Ling and Rönn summarize evidence for altered DNA methylation, both as a cause and a consequence of human obesity and type 2 diabetes. As epigenetic alterations are dynamic in nature, they may also provide targets for drug development.</p>},
  author       = {Ling, Charlotte and Rönn, Tina},
  issn         = {1550-4131},
  keyword      = {aging,diet,DNA methylation,epigenetics,exercise,histone modifications,obesity,physical activity,prediction,type 2 diabetes},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {1028--1044},
  publisher    = {Cell Press},
  series       = {Cell Metabolism},
  title        = {Epigenetics in Human Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2019.03.009},
  volume       = {29},
  year         = {2019},
}