Advanced

Effects of cooling on muscle function and duration of stance phase during gait

Halder, Amitava LU ; Gao, Chuansi LU and Miller, Michael LU (2015) 16th International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics, 2015
Abstract
Introduction: Cold exposure alters muscular function. Muscle cooling influences the neuromuscular activation during maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) and the amplitude of surface electromyography (sEMG) [1],[2]. It also slows down the mechanical process during contraction [3]. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of local cooling in cold water at 10 °C for 20 min in a climate chamber on lower leg muscle activity and gait pattern.
Methods: Sixteen healthy adults (eight females), aged Mean (SD) 27.0(2.9) years; body mass 66.3(9.8) kg; and height 169.5(7.8) cm participated in this experimental study. The median frequency (MF) and mean power frequency (MPF) of sEMG from tibialis anterior (TA) and... (More)
Introduction: Cold exposure alters muscular function. Muscle cooling influences the neuromuscular activation during maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) and the amplitude of surface electromyography (sEMG) [1],[2]. It also slows down the mechanical process during contraction [3]. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of local cooling in cold water at 10 °C for 20 min in a climate chamber on lower leg muscle activity and gait pattern.
Methods: Sixteen healthy adults (eight females), aged Mean (SD) 27.0(2.9) years; body mass 66.3(9.8) kg; and height 169.5(7.8) cm participated in this experimental study. The median frequency (MF) and mean power frequency (MPF) of sEMG from tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles during MVC in ankle planter (PF) and dorsi-flexion (DF) against a hand-held dynamometer as well as contact times on a force plate during gait before and after cooling were measured and analysed.
Results: The MF and MPF were significantly lower (P<0.01*) in both TA and GM muscle during MVC and in TA during gait trials after cooling. However, the frequency analysis for GM muscle showed no significant difference (P=0.46 and 0.06, respectively) either in MF or MPF during walking on level surface (table 1).
Table 1: The means and SD (Hz) for the MF and MPF of the TA and GM during gait and MVC trials before and after cooling (N=16).
sEMG Tibialis Anterior (TA) Gastrocnemius Medialis GM
Pre Cooling Post Cooling Pre Cooling Post Cooling
Gait MF 83.0±10.2* 69.9±9.6* 81.6±12.6 79.3±11.1
Gait MPF 99.7±11.5* 82.3±11.7* 99.8±13.2 93.2±12.4
MVC MF 87.0±9.7* 50.0±6.1* 111.7±16.7* 90.8±14.8*
MVC MPF 100.7±10.6* 59.8±7.7* 129.1±15.3* 101.0±16.1*


Fig 1: Duration of stance phase in gait trials.
Additionally, the post cooling stance phase over the force plate was significantly (P= 0.013) longer than pre-cooling.
Discussion: The significant time difference might be caused by the cold induced MF and MPF decrease in sEMG. Our previous investigation reported that cooling increased the sEMG amplitude and produced fatigue like responses in the leg muscles [2]. Moreover, other studies showed that muscle fatigue resulted in electromechanical delay during cold exposure [1], [4].
Conclusion: Moderate degree and duration of cooling may affect muscle motor unit firing rates, thus shifting the sEMG spectrum to lower frequencies, therefore decreasing the leg muscle force production. The result suggests that muscle cooling can cause cold induced frequency decrease in sEMG similar to fatigue response and lead to reduced muscle performance.
References:
1. Cè, E., Rampichini, S., Agnello, L., Limonta, E., Veicsteinas, A., & Esposito, F. (2013). Effects of temperature and fatigue on the electromechanical delay components. Muscle & Nerve, 47(4), 566-576. doi:10.1002/mus.23627.
2. Halder A, Gao C, Miller M. (2014). Effects of cooling on ankle muscle maximum performances, gait ground reaction forces and electromyography. Journal of Sports Medicine.doi:10.1155/2014/520124.
3. Drinkwater, E. (2008). Effects of peripheral cooling on characteristics of local muscle. Medicine and Sport Science, 5374-88. doi:10.1159/000151551.
4. Rampichini, S., Cè, E., Limonta, E., & Esposito, F. (2014). Effects of fatigue on the electromechanical delay components in gastrocnemius medialis muscle. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 114(3), 639-651. doi:10.1007/s00421-013-2790-9. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to conference
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Gait, Ground reaction force, Muscle cooling, Electromyography
conference name
16th International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics, 2015
conference location
Portsmouth, United Kingdom
conference dates
2015-06-29 - 2015-07-03
DOI
10.1186/2046-7648-4-s1-a47
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
f70f382a-a77b-4e4f-854e-4240551f94d2 (old id 5152659)
date added to LUP
2015-05-25 11:32:22
date last changed
2019-07-01 06:21:47
@misc{f70f382a-a77b-4e4f-854e-4240551f94d2,
  abstract     = {Introduction: Cold exposure alters muscular function. Muscle cooling influences the neuromuscular activation during maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) and the amplitude of surface electromyography (sEMG) [1],[2]. It also slows down the mechanical process during contraction [3]. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of local cooling in cold water at 10 °C for 20 min in a climate chamber on lower leg muscle activity and gait pattern.<br>
Methods: Sixteen healthy adults (eight females), aged Mean (SD) 27.0(2.9) years; body mass 66.3(9.8) kg; and height 169.5(7.8) cm participated in this experimental study. The median frequency (MF) and mean power frequency (MPF) of sEMG from tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles during MVC in  ankle planter (PF) and dorsi-flexion (DF) against a hand-held dynamometer as well as contact times on a force plate during gait before and after cooling were measured and analysed.<br>
Results: The MF and MPF were significantly lower (P&lt;0.01*) in both TA and GM muscle during MVC and in TA during gait trials after cooling. However, the frequency analysis for GM muscle showed no significant difference (P=0.46 and 0.06, respectively) either in MF or MPF during walking on level surface (table 1).<br>
Table 1: The means and SD (Hz) for the MF and MPF of the TA and GM during gait and MVC trials before and after cooling (N=16). <br>
sEMG	Tibialis Anterior (TA)	Gastrocnemius Medialis GM<br>
	Pre Cooling	Post Cooling	Pre Cooling	Post Cooling<br>
Gait MF	83.0±10.2*	69.9±9.6*	81.6±12.6	79.3±11.1<br>
Gait MPF	99.7±11.5*	82.3±11.7*	99.8±13.2	93.2±12.4<br>
MVC MF	87.0±9.7*	50.0±6.1*	111.7±16.7*	90.8±14.8*<br>
MVC MPF	100.7±10.6*	59.8±7.7*	129.1±15.3*	101.0±16.1*<br>
 <br>
 <br>
Fig 1: Duration of stance phase in gait trials. <br>
Additionally, the post cooling stance phase over the force plate was significantly (P= 0.013) longer than pre-cooling.<br>
Discussion: The significant time difference might be caused by the cold induced MF and MPF decrease in sEMG. Our previous investigation reported that cooling increased the sEMG amplitude and produced fatigue like responses in the leg muscles [2]. Moreover, other studies showed that muscle fatigue resulted in electromechanical delay during cold exposure [1], [4].<br>
Conclusion: Moderate degree and duration of cooling may affect muscle motor unit firing rates, thus shifting the sEMG spectrum to lower frequencies, therefore decreasing the leg muscle force production. The result suggests that muscle cooling can cause cold induced frequency decrease in sEMG similar to fatigue response and lead to reduced muscle performance.<br>
References:<br>
1. Cè, E., Rampichini, S., Agnello, L., Limonta, E., Veicsteinas, A., &amp; Esposito, F. (2013). Effects of temperature and fatigue on the electromechanical delay components. Muscle &amp; Nerve, 47(4), 566-576. doi:10.1002/mus.23627. <br>
2. Halder A, Gao C, Miller M. (2014). Effects of cooling on ankle muscle maximum performances, gait ground reaction forces and electromyography. Journal of Sports Medicine.doi:10.1155/2014/520124.<br>
3. Drinkwater, E. (2008). Effects of peripheral cooling on characteristics of local muscle. Medicine and Sport Science, 5374-88. doi:10.1159/000151551.<br>
4. Rampichini, S., Cè, E., Limonta, E., &amp; Esposito, F. (2014). Effects of fatigue on the electromechanical delay components in gastrocnemius medialis muscle. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 114(3), 639-651. doi:10.1007/s00421-013-2790-9. },
  author       = {Halder, Amitava and Gao, Chuansi and Miller, Michael},
  keyword      = {Gait,Ground reaction force,Muscle cooling,Electromyography},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Portsmouth, United Kingdom},
  month        = {07},
  title        = {Effects of cooling on muscle function and duration of stance phase during gait},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2046-7648-4-s1-a47},
  year         = {2015},
}