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Endoskopins historia : Från spekulum till kamerakapsel

Thorlacius, Henrik LU ; Cronstedt, Jean and Toth, Ervin LU (2017) In Lakartidningen 114(42). p.1782-1782
Abstract

Endoscopy is not a modern invention but the history of endoscopy goes back to ancient times in Egypt and Greece when speculums were used to inspect the nose cavity, vagina and anorectum. The modern era of endoscopy started in the 19th century with the development of straight metallic tubes with primitive light sources, such as Bozzini´s »lichtleiter« and Desormeaux´s »endoscope«. The first gastroscopy was conducted by Kussmaul in 1868 when he attempted to inspect the inside of the stomach by intubating a sword swallower with a 48 cm long straight metallic tube. During this time Bruck placed galvanised wire threads at the tip of the endoscope which markedly improved illumination (»galvanoscope«). In 1888, Nitze successfully made an... (More)

Endoscopy is not a modern invention but the history of endoscopy goes back to ancient times in Egypt and Greece when speculums were used to inspect the nose cavity, vagina and anorectum. The modern era of endoscopy started in the 19th century with the development of straight metallic tubes with primitive light sources, such as Bozzini´s »lichtleiter« and Desormeaux´s »endoscope«. The first gastroscopy was conducted by Kussmaul in 1868 when he attempted to inspect the inside of the stomach by intubating a sword swallower with a 48 cm long straight metallic tube. During this time Bruck placed galvanised wire threads at the tip of the endoscope which markedly improved illumination (»galvanoscope«). In 1888, Nitze successfully made an endoscope with a miniaturized light bulb at the tip of the instrument. The first practical semi-flexible instrument was developed by Schindler in 1932 allowing deeper intubation into the gastrointestinal tract. Hopkins invention in 1954 of glass fiber bundles transmitting high quality images even if bent made the way for the flexible fiberscope developed by Hirschowitz in 1957. The fiberscope made it possible to use external high intensity light sources »cold light« improving illumination further. In parallel, Uri and Tasaka developed the »gastrocamera« allowing routine endoscopic photography, which remained standard until the incorporation of the CCD camera in the endoscope in 1983. The development of of videoendoscopy in the 1990s revolutionized endoscopy and made the fiberscopes obsolete. The first capsule endoscopy performed in 1999, which opened up the door to wireless endoscopy. It is interesting that most improvements of endoscopy are the result of an innovative use of inventions from other scientific fields, such as optics, mechanics and photography. How future endoscopy will shape is difficult to guess but, as stated by someone, »the best way to predict the future is to invent it yourself.

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
alternative title
Endoscopy - An innovative history of optics, mechanics and photography
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Lakartidningen
volume
114
issue
42
pages
1 pages
publisher
Swedish Medical Association
external identifiers
  • scopus:85032024067
ISSN
0023-7205
language
Swedish
LU publication?
no
id
fbb6c424-39d3-4a13-a006-d020095021e2
date added to LUP
2017-11-08 10:37:01
date last changed
2018-01-07 12:25:22
@article{fbb6c424-39d3-4a13-a006-d020095021e2,
  abstract     = {<p>Endoscopy is not a modern invention but the history of endoscopy goes back to ancient times in Egypt and Greece when speculums were used to inspect the nose cavity, vagina and anorectum. The modern era of endoscopy started in the 19th century with the development of straight metallic tubes with primitive light sources, such as Bozzini´s »lichtleiter« and Desormeaux´s »endoscope«. The first gastroscopy was conducted by Kussmaul in 1868 when he attempted to inspect the inside of the stomach by intubating a sword swallower with a 48 cm long straight metallic tube. During this time Bruck placed galvanised wire threads at the tip of the endoscope which markedly improved illumination (»galvanoscope«). In 1888, Nitze successfully made an endoscope with a miniaturized light bulb at the tip of the instrument. The first practical semi-flexible instrument was developed by Schindler in 1932 allowing deeper intubation into the gastrointestinal tract. Hopkins invention in 1954 of glass fiber bundles transmitting high quality images even if bent made the way for the flexible fiberscope developed by Hirschowitz in 1957. The fiberscope made it possible to use external high intensity light sources »cold light« improving illumination further. In parallel, Uri and Tasaka developed the »gastrocamera« allowing routine endoscopic photography, which remained standard until the incorporation of the CCD camera in the endoscope in 1983. The development of of videoendoscopy in the 1990s revolutionized endoscopy and made the fiberscopes obsolete. The first capsule endoscopy performed in 1999, which opened up the door to wireless endoscopy. It is interesting that most improvements of endoscopy are the result of an innovative use of inventions from other scientific fields, such as optics, mechanics and photography. How future endoscopy will shape is difficult to guess but, as stated by someone, »the best way to predict the future is to invent it yourself.</p>},
  author       = {Thorlacius, Henrik and Cronstedt, Jean and Toth, Ervin},
  issn         = {0023-7205},
  language     = {swe},
  month        = {10},
  number       = {42},
  pages        = {1782--1782},
  publisher    = {Swedish Medical Association},
  series       = {Lakartidningen},
  title        = {Endoskopins historia : Från spekulum till kamerakapsel},
  volume       = {114},
  year         = {2017},
}