Advanced

From plasma to nanoparticles : Optical and particle emission of a spark discharge generator

Kohut, A.; Ludvigsson, L. LU ; Meuller, B. O. LU ; Deppert, K. LU ; Messing, M. E. LU ; Galbács, G. and Geretovszky, Zs (2017) In Nanotechnology 28(47).
Abstract

The increased demand for high purity nanoparticles (NPs) of defined geometry necessitates the continuous development of generation routes. One of the most promising physical techniques for producing metal, semiconductor or alloy NPs in the gas phase is spark discharge NP generation. The technique has a great potential for up-scaling without altering the particles. Despite the simplicity of the setup, the formation of NPs in a spark discharge takes place via complex multi-scale processes, which greatly hinders the investigation via conventional NP measurement techniques. In the present work, time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to provide information on the species present in the spark from as early as approximately... (More)

The increased demand for high purity nanoparticles (NPs) of defined geometry necessitates the continuous development of generation routes. One of the most promising physical techniques for producing metal, semiconductor or alloy NPs in the gas phase is spark discharge NP generation. The technique has a great potential for up-scaling without altering the particles. Despite the simplicity of the setup, the formation of NPs in a spark discharge takes place via complex multi-scale processes, which greatly hinders the investigation via conventional NP measurement techniques. In the present work, time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to provide information on the species present in the spark from as early as approximately 100 ns after the initiation of the discharge. We demonstrate that operando emission spectroscopy can deliver valuable insights into NP formation. The emission spectra of the spark are used to identify, among others, the main stages of material erosion and to calculate the quenching rate of the generated metal vapour. We demonstrate that the alteration of key control parameters, that are typically used to optimize NP generation, clearly affect the emission spectra. We report for Cu and Au NPs that the intensity of spectral lines emitted by metal atoms levels off when spark energy is increased above an energy threshold, suggesting that the maximum concentration of metal vapour produced in the generator is limited. This explains the size variation of the generated NPs. We report a strong correlation between the optical and particle emission of the spark discharge generator, which demonstrate the suitability of OES as a valuable characterization tool that will allow for the more deliberate optimization of spark-based NP generation.

(Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
nanoparticle generation, optical emission spectroscopy, plasma synthesis, Spark discharge
in
Nanotechnology
volume
28
issue
47
publisher
IOP Publishing
external identifiers
  • scopus:85033665124
  • wos:000414173900002
ISSN
0957-4484
DOI
10.1088/1361-6528/aa8f84
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
fffda790-7445-4ec5-a4c3-f4d1b5bbb567
date added to LUP
2017-11-24 08:36:20
date last changed
2018-05-26 03:00:14
@article{fffda790-7445-4ec5-a4c3-f4d1b5bbb567,
  abstract     = {<p>The increased demand for high purity nanoparticles (NPs) of defined geometry necessitates the continuous development of generation routes. One of the most promising physical techniques for producing metal, semiconductor or alloy NPs in the gas phase is spark discharge NP generation. The technique has a great potential for up-scaling without altering the particles. Despite the simplicity of the setup, the formation of NPs in a spark discharge takes place via complex multi-scale processes, which greatly hinders the investigation via conventional NP measurement techniques. In the present work, time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to provide information on the species present in the spark from as early as approximately 100 ns after the initiation of the discharge. We demonstrate that operando emission spectroscopy can deliver valuable insights into NP formation. The emission spectra of the spark are used to identify, among others, the main stages of material erosion and to calculate the quenching rate of the generated metal vapour. We demonstrate that the alteration of key control parameters, that are typically used to optimize NP generation, clearly affect the emission spectra. We report for Cu and Au NPs that the intensity of spectral lines emitted by metal atoms levels off when spark energy is increased above an energy threshold, suggesting that the maximum concentration of metal vapour produced in the generator is limited. This explains the size variation of the generated NPs. We report a strong correlation between the optical and particle emission of the spark discharge generator, which demonstrate the suitability of OES as a valuable characterization tool that will allow for the more deliberate optimization of spark-based NP generation.</p>},
  articleno    = {475603},
  author       = {Kohut, A. and Ludvigsson, L. and Meuller, B. O. and Deppert, K. and Messing, M. E. and Galbács, G. and Geretovszky, Zs},
  issn         = {0957-4484},
  keyword      = {nanoparticle generation,optical emission spectroscopy,plasma synthesis,Spark discharge},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {10},
  number       = {47},
  publisher    = {IOP Publishing},
  series       = {Nanotechnology},
  title        = {From plasma to nanoparticles : Optical and particle emission of a spark discharge generator},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aa8f84},
  volume       = {28},
  year         = {2017},
}