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Method Development for Fractionation of Milk Fat Globules -For improvement of cream functionality

Olsson, Amanda LU and Mamic, Angela LU (2015) KLG820 20151
Food Technology and Nutrition
Abstract
In recent years, different methods for fractionation of native milk fat globules with respect to particle size have been developed. This has been done in order to investigate if the size of the fat globules have any impact on the product functionality. The purpose of this master thesis was to develop a method for fractionation of native milk fat globules with respect to particle size and with focus on cream. This was done in order to try to create new opportunities for the dairy industry to develop new innovative cream products with improved product functionalities. The methods that were investigated were gravitational separation and centrifugal separation.

Gravitational separation that was performed at 8°C for 24 hours, in separatory... (More)
In recent years, different methods for fractionation of native milk fat globules with respect to particle size have been developed. This has been done in order to investigate if the size of the fat globules have any impact on the product functionality. The purpose of this master thesis was to develop a method for fractionation of native milk fat globules with respect to particle size and with focus on cream. This was done in order to try to create new opportunities for the dairy industry to develop new innovative cream products with improved product functionalities. The methods that were investigated were gravitational separation and centrifugal separation.

Gravitational separation that was performed at 8°C for 24 hours, in separatory funnels, was preferably performed with an initial fat content of 10%. Furthermore a successful fractionation seemed to have occurred between all the five extracted phases. The particle size for Phase One, Phase Two, Phase Three, Phase Four and Phase Five was equal to 2.78 ± 0.11µm, 3.78 ± 0.13 µm, 4.20 ± 0.01 µm, 4.31 ± 0.04 µm and 4.78 ± 0.08 µm respectively, where Phase One was the bottom phase that was extracted first and Phase Five was the top phase. It was indicated that Phase One and Phase Two could be combined as Phase A, and that the other phases could be combined as Phase B. Furthermore, Phase C which was the bottom phase of Phase B after another 24 hours, corresponded to Phase A and a mixture of those two phases was created. The particle size was significantly larger for Phase D compared to in Phase B and future trials were decided to be performed with Phase D and Phase A+C.

The fat content of Phase A+C and Phase D, but also of Initial cream, which was known as unfractionated cream, was concentrated in a separator prior to some whipping trials. Before separation and crystallization, there was a significant difference in particle size between all the different types of cream respectively. The particle size for Phase A+C, Phase D and Initial cream was equal to 3.34 ± 0.04 µm, 4.62 ± 0.02 µm and 4.34 ± 0.02 µm respectively.

There were large variations in the obtained fat content between different trials for a certain type of cream, as a result of the processing through the separator, which lead to the whipping of cream with a fat content of 32% and 24% respectively. No precise value of butter formation time and whipping time respectively could be given, however a rough estimation resulted in a whipping time of 180s for Phase D and Initial cream and a whipping time of 260s for Phase A+C.

Cold centrifugal separation at 8°C gave in general rise to destroyed cream samples in which thick butter like layers were present. The few samples that were not destroyed, did not gave rise to any successful fractioning. When warm centrifugal separation was performed at 40°C with a running time of 30 minutes and Relative centrifugal force of 59xg, 100xg and 200xg respectively, no successful fractioning of the fat globules could be obtained. (Less)
Popular Abstract
Fractionation of Milk Fat Globules with Gravitational Separation
- a successful method for future improvement of product functionality of dairy cream products

Angela Mamic and Amanda Olsson
June 2015
LUND UNIVERSITY

In recent years, different methods for fractionation of native milk fat globules with respect to size have been developed. The development of new methods to treat dairy cream creates new opportunities for the dairy industry to develop new products but also improve their existing products as well.

By using gravitational separation for fractionation of fat globules in cream with an initial fat content of 10% and with a total duration time of 48 hours, it resulted in a successful fractionation with respect to... (More)
Fractionation of Milk Fat Globules with Gravitational Separation
- a successful method for future improvement of product functionality of dairy cream products

Angela Mamic and Amanda Olsson
June 2015
LUND UNIVERSITY

In recent years, different methods for fractionation of native milk fat globules with respect to size have been developed. The development of new methods to treat dairy cream creates new opportunities for the dairy industry to develop new products but also improve their existing products as well.

By using gravitational separation for fractionation of fat globules in cream with an initial fat content of 10% and with a total duration time of 48 hours, it resulted in a successful fractionation with respect to particle size. The particle size that was obtained for the two final fractionated phases was equal to 3.34±0.04 µm and 4.62±0.02 µm respectively, while the particle size of unfractionated cream was 4.34±0.02 µm, see Table 1. The particle size after concentration and crystallization of fat for Phase A+C, Phase D and Initial cream was equal to 3.64 ± 0.09 µm, 4.74 ± 0.01 µm and 4.48 ± 0.01 µm respectively.

The gravitational fractionation was performed with cream that was diluted with skim milk from 40% to 10% fat. The equipment that was used for the fractionation was separatory funnels that had a total volume of 500 mL each. Two phases, Phase A and Phase B, were extracted after 24 hours, see Figure 1. During this time, the fat content for Phase B was increased. Immediately after the extraction, Phase B was reintroduced into the separatory funnels again and fractionated for another 24 hours. After a total fractionation time of 48 hours, Phase C and Phase D were extracted. Phase A was mixed with Phase C since the particle size was the same for these two phases. Particle size analysis was performed for each phase.
When it comes to whipping cream, a specific particle size can potentially improve its functionalities such as whipping time, overrun and stability. Some trials were performed to determine the whipping time for both fractionated and unfractionated cream, which resulted in that large fat globules gave a shorter whipping time compared to smaller ones.
Fractionation trials was also performed with centrifugal separation, in which cream with a fat content of 10% was used. However, no successful fractionation was obtained, even though it should be theoretically possible.
All in all, a successful method for fractionation of milk fat globules in cream with respect to particle size has been proved to be gravitational separation. By focusing on even more trials and research about gravitational separation, it will thereby increase the chance of taking fractionation of milk fat globules in cream even closer to be a method that can be applied in the industry. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Olsson, Amanda LU and Mamic, Angela LU
supervisor
organization
course
KLG820 20151
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Centrifugal separation, Gravitational separation, Fractionation, Cream, Milk fat globules, Particle size, livsmedelsteknologi, food technology, Whipping time
language
English
id
7369967
date added to LUP
2015-06-23 16:33:22
date last changed
2015-06-23 16:33:22
@misc{7369967,
  abstract     = {In recent years, different methods for fractionation of native milk fat globules with respect to particle size have been developed. This has been done in order to investigate if the size of the fat globules have any impact on the product functionality. The purpose of this master thesis was to develop a method for fractionation of native milk fat globules with respect to particle size and with focus on cream. This was done in order to try to create new opportunities for the dairy industry to develop new innovative cream products with improved product functionalities. The methods that were investigated were gravitational separation and centrifugal separation.
 
Gravitational separation that was performed at 8°C for 24 hours, in separatory funnels, was preferably performed with an initial fat content of 10%. Furthermore a successful fractionation seemed to have occurred between all the five extracted phases. The particle size for Phase One, Phase Two, Phase Three, Phase Four and Phase Five was equal to 2.78 ± 0.11µm, 3.78 ± 0.13 µm, 4.20 ± 0.01 µm, 4.31 ± 0.04 µm and 4.78 ± 0.08 µm respectively, where Phase One was the bottom phase that was extracted first and Phase Five was the top phase. It was indicated that Phase One and Phase Two could be combined as Phase A, and that the other phases could be combined as Phase B. Furthermore, Phase C which was the bottom phase of Phase B after another 24 hours, corresponded to Phase A and a mixture of those two phases was created. The particle size was significantly larger for Phase D compared to in Phase B and future trials were decided to be performed with Phase D and Phase A+C.
 
The fat content of Phase A+C and Phase D, but also of Initial cream, which was known as unfractionated cream, was concentrated in a separator prior to some whipping trials. Before separation and crystallization, there was a significant difference in particle size between all the different types of cream respectively. The particle size for Phase A+C, Phase D and Initial cream was equal to 3.34 ± 0.04 µm, 4.62 ± 0.02 µm and 4.34 ± 0.02 µm respectively.
 
There were large variations in the obtained fat content between different trials for a certain type of cream, as a result of the processing through the separator, which lead to the whipping of cream with a fat content of 32% and 24% respectively. No precise value of butter formation time and whipping time respectively could be given, however a rough estimation resulted in a whipping time of 180s for Phase D and Initial cream and a whipping time of 260s for Phase A+C. 
 
Cold centrifugal separation at 8°C gave in general rise to destroyed cream samples in which thick butter like layers were present. The few samples that were not destroyed, did not gave rise to any successful fractioning. When warm centrifugal separation was performed at 40°C with a running time of 30 minutes and Relative centrifugal force of 59xg, 100xg and 200xg respectively, no successful fractioning of the fat globules could be obtained.},
  author       = {Olsson, Amanda and Mamic, Angela},
  keyword      = {Centrifugal separation,Gravitational separation,Fractionation,Cream,Milk fat globules,Particle size,livsmedelsteknologi,food technology,Whipping time},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Method Development for Fractionation of Milk Fat Globules -For improvement of cream functionality},
  year         = {2015},
}