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Högskolelärares personliga teorier om sin pedagogiska praktik (University teachers' personal theories of their pedagogical practice)

Schyberg, Solbritt LU (2007) In Malmö Studies in Educational Sciences no 37
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

I denna studie beskrivs och analyseras högskolelärares personliga teorier om sin pedagogiska praktik i högskolans grundutbildning. I anslutning till t.ex. Polanyi (1958) och Bourdieu (1990) har högskolelärare utvecklat en personlig praktisk teori som deltagare i ett akademiskt socialt sammanhang, först som studenter sedan som lärare. Denna kan ses som deras ”pedagogik” i anslutning till Durkheim (1956), en praktisk teori som vägleder deras handlingar som lärare; ett sätt att uppfatta och tänka om undervisning och lärande.



Olika teoretiska perspektiv som Engeströms (1999) ”aktivitetsteori”, Dahllöfs (1999) ”ramfaktorteori”, Luhmanns (1995) ”sociala systemteori” och Biggs (2003)... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

I denna studie beskrivs och analyseras högskolelärares personliga teorier om sin pedagogiska praktik i högskolans grundutbildning. I anslutning till t.ex. Polanyi (1958) och Bourdieu (1990) har högskolelärare utvecklat en personlig praktisk teori som deltagare i ett akademiskt socialt sammanhang, först som studenter sedan som lärare. Denna kan ses som deras ”pedagogik” i anslutning till Durkheim (1956), en praktisk teori som vägleder deras handlingar som lärare; ett sätt att uppfatta och tänka om undervisning och lärande.



Olika teoretiska perspektiv som Engeströms (1999) ”aktivitetsteori”, Dahllöfs (1999) ”ramfaktorteori”, Luhmanns (1995) ”sociala systemteori” och Biggs (2003) systemperspektiv på undervisning och lärande i högre utbildning kan inordnas under ett allmänt komplext systemteoretiskt perspektiv, som pekar på flera möjliga komponenter som förhåller sig till varandra på ett dynamiskt och självorganiserande sätt. Sådana autopoietiska system karakteriseras av både stabilitet och förändring och är tillämpbara såväl på lärares tänkande och handlande som på utbildningssystemet självt.



Empiriska data består av semi-strukturerade intervjuer med nio högskolelärare vid Lunds universitet och tio vid högskolan i Växjö i södra Sverige, vilka representerar de akademiska ämnena historia, ekonomisk historia, juridik, nationalekonomi, kulturgeografi, statistik, nordiska språk, litteraturvetenskap och statsvetenskap. De personliga teorier som genereras från dessa data är vad Argyris och Schön (1974) kallar ”espoused theories”, förfäktade teorier, vilka valideras gentemot observationer av lärarnas lektioner samt gruppintervjuer med lärarnas studenter.



Resultaten visar, att en majoritet av universitetslärarna inte tycks uppmärksamma sin pedagogik särskilt mycket, utan denna förefaller vanligtvis vara underförstådd och självklar för dem. Endast ett fåtal lärare problematiserar sin pedagogiska praktik och tycker att pedagogisk kompetensutveckling kan vara värdefull.



Gemensamma teman i samtliga lärares personliga teorier handlar om vikten av gediget ämneskunnande och personligt engagemang såväl i ämnet som i studenterna som grund för god undervisning. Högskolelärarna ansluter sig till traditionella akademiska värden, åtminstone på de högre kurserna jämfört med de allra första kurserna i ämnet. Deras primära intentioner för studenterna på de allra första kurserna gäller fakta om olika perspektiv och teorier i ämnet, vilket de menar är användbara i olika yrken. Lärarna ser sitt ämne som så komplext och intressant för alla människor, att fakta i sig väcker intresse och engagemang för det. De ser sig själva som ämnesexperter och deras lärarstil är innehållsfokuserad.



Olika teman i lärarnas komplexa personliga teorier om deras pedagogiska praktik sammanfattas metaforiskt i termer av olika lärarstilar som predikantens, presentatörens, estradörens, illuminatörens och regissörens lärarstil. Predikantens stil är gemensam för samtliga lärare medan de fyra andra är varianter av denna stil. Presentatörens och estradörens studenter förväntas reproducera fakta, medan illuminatörens och regissörens studenter förväntas rekonstruera kunskap.



Resultatbilden är i linje med andra studiers, med den huvudsakliga skillnaden att klart studentcentrerade lärare saknas i föreliggande studie. (Less)
Abstract
In this study university teachers? personal theories of their pedagogical practice in basic courses in undergraduate education are described and analyzed. According to for example Polanyi (1958) and Bourdieu (1990) university teachers have developed a personal practical theory as participators in an academic social context, first as students then as teachers. This can be seen as their ?pedagogy? according to Durkheim (1956), a practical theory that guides their actions as teachers; a way of perceiving and thinking about teaching and learning.



Different theoretical perspectives such as Engeströms (1999) ?activity theory?, Dahllöfs (1999) ?frame factor theory?, Luhmanns (1995) ?social systems theory? and Biggs (2003)... (More)
In this study university teachers? personal theories of their pedagogical practice in basic courses in undergraduate education are described and analyzed. According to for example Polanyi (1958) and Bourdieu (1990) university teachers have developed a personal practical theory as participators in an academic social context, first as students then as teachers. This can be seen as their ?pedagogy? according to Durkheim (1956), a practical theory that guides their actions as teachers; a way of perceiving and thinking about teaching and learning.



Different theoretical perspectives such as Engeströms (1999) ?activity theory?, Dahllöfs (1999) ?frame factor theory?, Luhmanns (1995) ?social systems theory? and Biggs (2003) systems perspective on teaching and learning in higher education can be subsumed under a complex general systems theory that points to several possible components that relate to each other in a dynamic and self organizing way. Such autopoietic systems are characterized by both stability and change and are applicable on teachers? thinking as well as their action and the educational system itself.



Empirical data consist of semi-structured interviews with nine university lecturers at the University of Lund and ten lecturers at the University College of Växjö in southern Sweden representing academic disciplines such as history, economic history, law, economics, statistics, Scandinavian languages, comparative literature and political science. The personal theories generated from these data are what Argyris and Schön (1974) call ?espoused theories?, which in this study are validated against observations from the teachers? lectures and group interviews with the teachers? students.



The results show that a majority of the university teachers do not seem to pay much attention to their pedagogy which mostly seems to be tacit and natural to them. Only a few teachers problematise their pedagogical practice and find pedagogical competence development valuable.



Common themes in all teachers? personal theories deal with the importance of good content knowledge and personal commitment in the subject as well as the students as a ground for good teaching. They adhere to traditional academic values, at least in courses at higher levels than the basic courses. The teachers? primary intentions for their students? learning in basic courses are facts about different perspectives and theories in their subject, which they mean are useable in different professions. The teachers see their subject as complex and interesting to all people that facts in themselves evoke interests and feelings for it. They see themselves as experts in the subject and their teaching style is content-centered.



Different themes in the teachers? complex personal theories of their pedagogical practice are summarized metaphorically in terms of different teaching styles as the preacher, the presenter, the entertainer, the illuminator and the director. The preacher is common to all teachers and the four others are variants of this style. The role of the students is that of reproducing facts for the presenter and the entertainer, and that of reconstruction knowledge for the illuminator and the director.



The results are in line with other studies, with the main difference being the lack of student-centered approach in this study (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Prof. Em. Handal, Gunnar, Oslo universitet, Pedagogisk foroskningsinstitut, Box 1092 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norge.
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
tyst kunskap, systemteori, studentcentrering, praktisk kunskap, personlig kunskap, pedagogisk kompetens, högre utbildning, Grundutbildning, university teachers? thinking, undergraduate education, teaching and learning, tacit knowledge, systems theory, student-centeredeness, practical knowledge, personal knowledge, Higher education, pedagogical competence, undervisning och lärande, universitetslärares tänkande, Pedagogy and didactics, Pedagogik, didaktik
in
Malmö Studies in Educational Sciences no 37
pages
214 pages
publisher
Malmö högskola
defense location
Sal D 138 på Lärarutbildningen i Malmö, Nordenskiöldsgatan 10.
defense date
2007-11-09 13:15
ISBN
978-91-976537-9-4
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
2f73c961-3237-49ff-8d7c-529b10768e52 (old id 599087)
date added to LUP
2007-11-13 08:59:28
date last changed
2016-11-22 13:52:11
@misc{2f73c961-3237-49ff-8d7c-529b10768e52,
  abstract     = {In this study university teachers? personal theories of their pedagogical practice in basic courses in undergraduate education are described and analyzed. According to for example Polanyi (1958) and Bourdieu (1990) university teachers have developed a personal practical theory as participators in an academic social context, first as students then as teachers. This can be seen as their ?pedagogy? according to Durkheim (1956), a practical theory that guides their actions as teachers; a way of perceiving and thinking about teaching and learning.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Different theoretical perspectives such as Engeströms (1999) ?activity theory?, Dahllöfs (1999) ?frame factor theory?, Luhmanns (1995) ?social systems theory? and Biggs (2003) systems perspective on teaching and learning in higher education can be subsumed under a complex general systems theory that points to several possible components that relate to each other in a dynamic and self organizing way. Such autopoietic systems are characterized by both stability and change and are applicable on teachers? thinking as well as their action and the educational system itself.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Empirical data consist of semi-structured interviews with nine university lecturers at the University of Lund and ten lecturers at the University College of Växjö in southern Sweden representing academic disciplines such as history, economic history, law, economics, statistics, Scandinavian languages, comparative literature and political science. The personal theories generated from these data are what Argyris and Schön (1974) call ?espoused theories?, which in this study are validated against observations from the teachers? lectures and group interviews with the teachers? students.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The results show that a majority of the university teachers do not seem to pay much attention to their pedagogy which mostly seems to be tacit and natural to them. Only a few teachers problematise their pedagogical practice and find pedagogical competence development valuable.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Common themes in all teachers? personal theories deal with the importance of good content knowledge and personal commitment in the subject as well as the students as a ground for good teaching. They adhere to traditional academic values, at least in courses at higher levels than the basic courses. The teachers? primary intentions for their students? learning in basic courses are facts about different perspectives and theories in their subject, which they mean are useable in different professions. The teachers see their subject as complex and interesting to all people that facts in themselves evoke interests and feelings for it. They see themselves as experts in the subject and their teaching style is content-centered.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Different themes in the teachers? complex personal theories of their pedagogical practice are summarized metaphorically in terms of different teaching styles as the preacher, the presenter, the entertainer, the illuminator and the director. The preacher is common to all teachers and the four others are variants of this style. The role of the students is that of reproducing facts for the presenter and the entertainer, and that of reconstruction knowledge for the illuminator and the director.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The results are in line with other studies, with the main difference being the lack of student-centered approach in this study},
  author       = {Schyberg, Solbritt},
  isbn         = {978-91-976537-9-4},
  keyword      = {tyst kunskap,systemteori,studentcentrering,praktisk kunskap,personlig kunskap,pedagogisk kompetens,högre utbildning,Grundutbildning,university teachers? thinking,undergraduate education,teaching and learning,tacit knowledge,systems theory,student-centeredeness,practical knowledge,personal knowledge,Higher education,pedagogical competence,undervisning och lärande,universitetslärares tänkande,Pedagogy and didactics,Pedagogik,didaktik},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {214},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x994ba98)},
  series       = {Malmö Studies in Educational Sciences no 37},
  title        = {Högskolelärares personliga teorier om sin pedagogiska praktik (University teachers' personal theories of their pedagogical practice)},
  year         = {2007},
}