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Education, Health, and Earnings – Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Young Adults

Lovén, Ida LU (2015) In Lund Economics Studies 189.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Avhandlingen består av fyra oberoende empiriska studier. Samtliga studier bidrar till den ekonomiska litteraturen kring barn och ungdomars hälsa och hälsans betydelse för utbildning och arbetsmarknadsutfall senare i livet. Samtliga studier focuserar på typ 1-diabetes men beaktar olika åldrar för sjukdomens debut. En sammanfattande slutsats av avhandlingen är att individer med typ 1-diabetes skiljer sig från jämnåriga kamrater, oavsett utfall eller tidpunkt för insjuknande. Typ 1-diabets har signifikanta konsekvenser för både utbildning och arbetsmarknadsutfall, men debutålder och egenskaper hos individen påverkar konsekvensernas omfattning. Avhandlingen baseras på två nationella diabetesregister... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Avhandlingen består av fyra oberoende empiriska studier. Samtliga studier bidrar till den ekonomiska litteraturen kring barn och ungdomars hälsa och hälsans betydelse för utbildning och arbetsmarknadsutfall senare i livet. Samtliga studier focuserar på typ 1-diabetes men beaktar olika åldrar för sjukdomens debut. En sammanfattande slutsats av avhandlingen är att individer med typ 1-diabetes skiljer sig från jämnåriga kamrater, oavsett utfall eller tidpunkt för insjuknande. Typ 1-diabets har signifikanta konsekvenser för både utbildning och arbetsmarknadsutfall, men debutålder och egenskaper hos individen påverkar konsekvensernas omfattning. Avhandlingen baseras på två nationella diabetesregister som kombinerats med longitudinell data från Statistiska centralbyrån.



En studie analyserar hur sannolikheten att ha en universitetsutbildning påverkas av typ 1-diabetes. Studien skiljer sig från tidigare studier på området genom att fokusera på typ 1-diabetes som debuterar i åldern 17-20 år, då unga vuxna vanligen står inför valet att gå in på arbetsmarknaden eller att fortsätta från gymnasiet till högre studier. Därmed skattar vi en direkt diabeteseffekt på utbildningsvalet och minimerar föräldrarnas inflytande, vilket är särskilt viktigt för barns prestationer under de tidiga skolåren. En andra studie av utbildningsval tar ett mer kvalitativt perspektiv. Studien undersöker om valet av studieinriktning på gymnasiet och universitet skiljer sig åt mellan studenter med och utan typ 1-diabetes.



Två studier undersöker hur individers årsinkomst påverkas av ökad tid i sjukdom. Ena studien omfattar både direkta inkomsteffekter och effekter som går via utbildning medan andra studien avgränsar insjuknandet till åldrar då individer generellt sett avslutat sina studier. Första studien inkluderar syskon och studerar också konsekvenser av att ha vuxit upp med en bror eller syster med typ 1-diabetes. Syskonperspektivet stöds av ekonomisk teori som beskriver familjen som ett system vars välbefinnande påverkas av samtliga familjemedlemmars hälsa. (Less)
Abstract
This thesis consists of four independent exploratory research papers contributing to the economic literature on child and adolescent health, and adult educational and labor market outcomes. Each paper considers type 1 diabetes and focuses on onset over a specific age span. An overall conclusion of this thesis is that individuals with type 1 diabetes deviate from peers without diabetes, irrespective of which outcome or the timing of onset studied. Type 1 diabetes has statistically and quantitatively significant consequences for both education and labor market outcomes, though the magnitude of the impact depends on timing of onset and individual characteristics.



The first paper, "Onset of type 1 diabetes in young adults... (More)
This thesis consists of four independent exploratory research papers contributing to the economic literature on child and adolescent health, and adult educational and labor market outcomes. Each paper considers type 1 diabetes and focuses on onset over a specific age span. An overall conclusion of this thesis is that individuals with type 1 diabetes deviate from peers without diabetes, irrespective of which outcome or the timing of onset studied. Type 1 diabetes has statistically and quantitatively significant consequences for both education and labor market outcomes, though the magnitude of the impact depends on timing of onset and individual characteristics.



The first paper, "Onset of type 1 diabetes in young adults and long-term consequences for annual earnings", investigates how onset of type 1 diabetes in the age group 28 to 34 relates to adult annual labor earnings over 22 years. First, by focusing on health in young adults (who are generally in the early stages of their careers, but have already made educational choices), I minimize any influence on earnings that otherwise may come from health interacting with education and skill formation during upbringing. Second, by controlling for individual fixed effects, I minimize any influence from time-invariant unobservable factors, such as cognitive and non-cognitive abilities, which have been found to be rather constant throughout adulthood.



The second paper, "Onset of type 1 diabetes in young adults and university education", assesses how onset of type 1 diabetes at age 17 to 20 relates to subsequent university education and family formation. Unlike children, young adults are themselves responsible for their health behavior and their academic aspirations, while parents' roles are more advisory. Accordingly, the link reflects how type 1 diabetes influences university education when ruling out the influence of earlier academic achievements and minimizing parental involvement.



The third paper, "Labor market consequences of growing up with type 1 diabetes", explores the long-term labor market consequences of growing up with type 1 diabetes, both for children (6 to 15 years old) developing the disease and their siblings. For siblings of individuals with type 1 diabetes, sisters' outcomes appear unaffected, while brothers' outcomes show, on the one hand, a higher likelihood of being employed, but, on the other hand, lower earnings reminiscent of the earnings decrease for individuals with type 1 diabetes themselves.



The fourth paper, "Early onset of type 1 diabetes and educational field at upper secondary and university level: is own experience an asset for a health care career?", analyzes the relationship between onset of type 1 diabetes (up to age 15) and the probability of choosing a health-oriented path at upper secondary and university level. By modeling the educational decisions as an unsorted series of binary choices, we shed light on the more qualitative aspects of schooling and assess a potential mechanism linking early life health to adult outcomes. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor Häkkinen, Unto, National Institute of Health and Welfare
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Siblings, Family formation, Type 1 diabetes, Education, Earnings, Health
in
Lund Economics Studies
volume
189
pages
216 pages
defense location
Holger Crafoord EC3:211
defense date
2015-10-09 10:15
ISSN
0460-0029
ISBN
978-91-7623-477-8 (pdf)
978-91-7623-476-1 (print)
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
37650e39-8752-4688-86e6-6f95d373deb5 (old id 7867153)
date added to LUP
2015-09-15 13:35:55
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:00
@misc{37650e39-8752-4688-86e6-6f95d373deb5,
  abstract     = {This thesis consists of four independent exploratory research papers contributing to the economic literature on child and adolescent health, and adult educational and labor market outcomes. Each paper considers type 1 diabetes and focuses on onset over a specific age span. An overall conclusion of this thesis is that individuals with type 1 diabetes deviate from peers without diabetes, irrespective of which outcome or the timing of onset studied. Type 1 diabetes has statistically and quantitatively significant consequences for both education and labor market outcomes, though the magnitude of the impact depends on timing of onset and individual characteristics.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The first paper, "Onset of type 1 diabetes in young adults and long-term consequences for annual earnings", investigates how onset of type 1 diabetes in the age group 28 to 34 relates to adult annual labor earnings over 22 years. First, by focusing on health in young adults (who are generally in the early stages of their careers, but have already made educational choices), I minimize any influence on earnings that otherwise may come from health interacting with education and skill formation during upbringing. Second, by controlling for individual fixed effects, I minimize any influence from time-invariant unobservable factors, such as cognitive and non-cognitive abilities, which have been found to be rather constant throughout adulthood.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The second paper, "Onset of type 1 diabetes in young adults and university education", assesses how onset of type 1 diabetes at age 17 to 20 relates to subsequent university education and family formation. Unlike children, young adults are themselves responsible for their health behavior and their academic aspirations, while parents' roles are more advisory. Accordingly, the link reflects how type 1 diabetes influences university education when ruling out the influence of earlier academic achievements and minimizing parental involvement. <br/><br>
<br/><br>
The third paper, "Labor market consequences of growing up with type 1 diabetes", explores the long-term labor market consequences of growing up with type 1 diabetes, both for children (6 to 15 years old) developing the disease and their siblings. For siblings of individuals with type 1 diabetes, sisters' outcomes appear unaffected, while brothers' outcomes show, on the one hand, a higher likelihood of being employed, but, on the other hand, lower earnings reminiscent of the earnings decrease for individuals with type 1 diabetes themselves.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The fourth paper, "Early onset of type 1 diabetes and educational field at upper secondary and university level: is own experience an asset for a health care career?", analyzes the relationship between onset of type 1 diabetes (up to age 15) and the probability of choosing a health-oriented path at upper secondary and university level. By modeling the educational decisions as an unsorted series of binary choices, we shed light on the more qualitative aspects of schooling and assess a potential mechanism linking early life health to adult outcomes.},
  author       = {Lovén, Ida},
  isbn         = {978-91-7623-477-8 (pdf)},
  issn         = {0460-0029},
  keyword      = {Siblings,Family formation,Type 1 diabetes,Education,Earnings,Health},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {216},
  series       = {Lund Economics Studies},
  title        = {Education, Health, and Earnings – Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Young Adults},
  volume       = {189},
  year         = {2015},
}