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Assessment of dermal uptake of diphenylmethane-4,4′-diisocyanate using tape stripping and biological monitoring

Hamada, Haneen LU ; Liljelind, Ingrid; Bruze, Magnus LU ; Engfeldt, Malin LU ; Isaksson, Marléne LU ; Jönsson, Bo A LU ; Tinnerberg, Håkan LU ; Lindh, Christian LU ; Axelsson, Sara and Zimerson, Erik LU (2018) In EJD. European Journal of Dermatology 28(2). p.143-148
Abstract
Background: Very little is known about the dermal uptake of isocyanates, and dermal exposure to isocyanates has been discussed as a factor involved in the induction of respiratory diseases. Objectives: To investigate the dermal uptake of diphenylmethane-4,4’-diisocyanate (4,4’-MDI). Materials & Methods: Four volunteers were dermally exposed to 10, 25, 49 and 50 mg 4,4’-MDI, respectively, for eight hours. The exposed areas were tape stripped. Urine and blood were biologically monitored for 48 hours. Tape strips, plasma, and urine were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: In total, 35-70% of the applied dose of 4,4’-MDI was absorbed by the skin. Very low fractions of applied dose were found in the tape strips.... (More)
Background: Very little is known about the dermal uptake of isocyanates, and dermal exposure to isocyanates has been discussed as a factor involved in the induction of respiratory diseases. Objectives: To investigate the dermal uptake of diphenylmethane-4,4’-diisocyanate (4,4’-MDI). Materials & Methods: Four volunteers were dermally exposed to 10, 25, 49 and 50 mg 4,4’-MDI, respectively, for eight hours. The exposed areas were tape stripped. Urine and blood were biologically monitored for 48 hours. Tape strips, plasma, and urine were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: In total, 35-70% of the applied dose of 4,4’-MDI was absorbed by the skin. Very low fractions of applied dose were found in the tape strips. The 4,4’-MDA concentration in plasma and urine was low, but peaked in urine at 10-14 hours and plasma at 8-32 hours after exposure. Conclusions: 4,4’-MDI is readily absorbed by human skin. Only small fractions of 4,4’-MDI remain as such in the superficial skin layers. The amounts found in blood and urine were only small fractions of the total applied doses which indicates that very small amounts of 4,4’-MDI penetrate the skin and reach the blood stream. The dermal uptake and distribution of 4,4’-MDI is much slower compared to that associated with airway uptake. Our data strongly indicate that formation of 4,4’-MDA from 4,4’-MDI upon reacting with water in the skin can only occur to a very limited extent. © 2018, John Libbey Eurotext. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
EJD. European Journal of Dermatology
volume
28
issue
2
pages
6 pages
publisher
John Libbey Eurotext
external identifiers
  • pmid:29620002
  • scopus:85048173159
ISSN
1167-1122
DOI
10.1684/ejd.2018.3247
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
103d997b-b3e4-4209-b155-7d29509bf4a5
date added to LUP
2017-08-02 15:41:13
date last changed
2018-07-21 03:00:10
@article{103d997b-b3e4-4209-b155-7d29509bf4a5,
  abstract     = {Background: Very little is known about the dermal uptake of isocyanates, and dermal exposure to isocyanates has been discussed as a factor involved in the induction of respiratory diseases. Objectives: To investigate the dermal uptake of diphenylmethane-4,4’-diisocyanate (4,4’-MDI). Materials & Methods: Four volunteers were dermally exposed to 10, 25, 49 and 50 mg 4,4’-MDI, respectively, for eight hours. The exposed areas were tape stripped. Urine and blood were biologically monitored for 48 hours. Tape strips, plasma, and urine were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: In total, 35-70% of the applied dose of 4,4’-MDI was absorbed by the skin. Very low fractions of applied dose were found in the tape strips. The 4,4’-MDA concentration in plasma and urine was low, but peaked in urine at 10-14 hours and plasma at 8-32 hours after exposure. Conclusions: 4,4’-MDI is readily absorbed by human skin. Only small fractions of 4,4’-MDI remain as such in the superficial skin layers. The amounts found in blood and urine were only small fractions of the total applied doses which indicates that very small amounts of 4,4’-MDI penetrate the skin and reach the blood stream. The dermal uptake and distribution of 4,4’-MDI is much slower compared to that associated with airway uptake. Our data strongly indicate that formation of 4,4’-MDA from 4,4’-MDI upon reacting with water in the skin can only occur to a very limited extent. © 2018, John Libbey Eurotext.},
  author       = {Hamada, Haneen and Liljelind, Ingrid and Bruze, Magnus and Engfeldt, Malin and Isaksson, Marléne and Jönsson, Bo A and Tinnerberg, Håkan and Lindh, Christian and Axelsson, Sara and Zimerson, Erik},
  issn         = {1167-1122},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {04},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {143--148},
  publisher    = {John Libbey Eurotext},
  series       = {EJD. European Journal of Dermatology},
  title        = {Assessment of dermal uptake of diphenylmethane-4,4′-diisocyanate using tape stripping and biological monitoring},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/ejd.2018.3247},
  volume       = {28},
  year         = {2018},
}