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Acidosis-induced ischemic brain damage: are free radicals involved?

Lundgren, Johan LU ; Zhang, H; Agardh, Carl-David LU ; Smith, Maj-Lis LU ; Evans, P J; Halliwell, B and Siesjö, Bo LU (1991) In Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 11(4). p.587-596
Abstract
Substantial evidence exists that reactive oxygen species participate in the pathogenesis of brain damage following both sustained and transient cerebral ischemia, adversely affecting the vascular endothelium and contributing to the formation of edema. One likely triggering event for free radical damage is delocalization of protein-bound iron. The binding capacity for some iron-binding proteins is highly pH sensitive and, consequently, the release of iron is enhanced by acidosis. In this study, we explored whether enhanced acidosis during ischemia triggers the production of reactive oxygen species. To that end, enhanced acidosis was produced by inducing ischemia in hyperglycemic rats, with normoglycemic ones serving as controls. Production... (More)
Substantial evidence exists that reactive oxygen species participate in the pathogenesis of brain damage following both sustained and transient cerebral ischemia, adversely affecting the vascular endothelium and contributing to the formation of edema. One likely triggering event for free radical damage is delocalization of protein-bound iron. The binding capacity for some iron-binding proteins is highly pH sensitive and, consequently, the release of iron is enhanced by acidosis. In this study, we explored whether enhanced acidosis during ischemia triggers the production of reactive oxygen species. To that end, enhanced acidosis was produced by inducing ischemia in hyperglycemic rats, with normoglycemic ones serving as controls. Production of H2O2, estimated from the decrease in catalase activity after 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT) administration, was measured in the cerebral cortex, caudoputamen, hippocampus, and substantia nigra (SN) after 15 min of ischemia followed by 5, 15, and 45 min of recovery, respectively (in substantia nigra after 45 min of recovery only). Free iron in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was measured after ischemia and 45 min of recovery. Levels of total glutathione (GSH + GSSH) in cortex and hippocampus, and levels of alpha-tocopherol in cortex, were also measured after 15 min of ischemia followed by 5, 15, and 45 min of recovery. The results confirm previous findings that brief ischemia in normoglycemic animals does not measurably increase H2O2 production in AT-injected animals. Ischemia under hyperglycemic conditions likewise failed to induce increased H2O2 production. No difference in free iron in CSF was observed between animals subjected to ischemia under hyper- and normoglycemic conditions. The moderate decrease in total glutathione or alpha-tocopherol levels did not differ between normo- and hyperglycemic animals in any brain region or at any recovery time. Thus, the results failed to give positive evidence for free radical damage following brief periods of ischemia complicated by excessive acidosis. However, it is possible that free radical production is localized to a small subcellular compartment within the tissue, thereby escaping detection. Also, the results do not exclude the possibility that free radicals are pathogenetically important after ischemia of longer duration. (Less)
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Contribution to journal
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published
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in
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
volume
11
issue
4
pages
587 - 596
publisher
Nature Publishing Group
external identifiers
  • pmid:2050747
  • scopus:0025820795
ISSN
1559-7016
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
71a3ed1d-f3dc-4b3d-a3f3-8f519d0094f1 (old id 1105878)
date added to LUP
2008-08-04 13:30:26
date last changed
2017-08-20 04:33:56
@article{71a3ed1d-f3dc-4b3d-a3f3-8f519d0094f1,
  abstract     = {Substantial evidence exists that reactive oxygen species participate in the pathogenesis of brain damage following both sustained and transient cerebral ischemia, adversely affecting the vascular endothelium and contributing to the formation of edema. One likely triggering event for free radical damage is delocalization of protein-bound iron. The binding capacity for some iron-binding proteins is highly pH sensitive and, consequently, the release of iron is enhanced by acidosis. In this study, we explored whether enhanced acidosis during ischemia triggers the production of reactive oxygen species. To that end, enhanced acidosis was produced by inducing ischemia in hyperglycemic rats, with normoglycemic ones serving as controls. Production of H2O2, estimated from the decrease in catalase activity after 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT) administration, was measured in the cerebral cortex, caudoputamen, hippocampus, and substantia nigra (SN) after 15 min of ischemia followed by 5, 15, and 45 min of recovery, respectively (in substantia nigra after 45 min of recovery only). Free iron in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was measured after ischemia and 45 min of recovery. Levels of total glutathione (GSH + GSSH) in cortex and hippocampus, and levels of alpha-tocopherol in cortex, were also measured after 15 min of ischemia followed by 5, 15, and 45 min of recovery. The results confirm previous findings that brief ischemia in normoglycemic animals does not measurably increase H2O2 production in AT-injected animals. Ischemia under hyperglycemic conditions likewise failed to induce increased H2O2 production. No difference in free iron in CSF was observed between animals subjected to ischemia under hyper- and normoglycemic conditions. The moderate decrease in total glutathione or alpha-tocopherol levels did not differ between normo- and hyperglycemic animals in any brain region or at any recovery time. Thus, the results failed to give positive evidence for free radical damage following brief periods of ischemia complicated by excessive acidosis. However, it is possible that free radical production is localized to a small subcellular compartment within the tissue, thereby escaping detection. Also, the results do not exclude the possibility that free radicals are pathogenetically important after ischemia of longer duration.},
  author       = {Lundgren, Johan and Zhang, H and Agardh, Carl-David and Smith, Maj-Lis and Evans, P J and Halliwell, B and Siesjö, Bo},
  issn         = {1559-7016},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {587--596},
  publisher    = {Nature Publishing Group},
  series       = {Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism},
  title        = {Acidosis-induced ischemic brain damage: are free radicals involved?},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {1991},
}