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Clinical impact of molecular and cytogenetic findings in synovial sarcoma

Panagopoulos, I LU ; Mertens, F LU ; Isaksson, Margareth LU ; Limon, J; Gustafson, Pelle LU ; Skytting, B; Åkerman, Måns LU ; Sciot, R; Dal Cin, P and Samson, I, et al. (2001) In Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer 31(4). p.72-362
Abstract

Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive soft-tissue tumor that accounts for up to 10% of soft-tissue sarcomas. Cytogenetically, synovial sarcoma is characterized by the t(X;18)(p11;q11), found in more than 95% of the tumors. This translocation results in rearrangements of the SYT gene in 18q11 and one of the SSX1, SSX2, or SSX4 genes in Xp11, creating a SYT/SSX1, SYT/SSX2, or SYT/SSX4 chimeric gene. It has been shown that patients with SYT/SSX1 fusion genes have a shorter metastasis-free survival than do patients with SYT/SSX2. Previous studies have also suggested that clonal evolution may be associated with disease progression. In the present study, RT-PCR analysis showed that all 64 examined synovial sarcomas from 54 patients had SYT-SSX... (More)

Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive soft-tissue tumor that accounts for up to 10% of soft-tissue sarcomas. Cytogenetically, synovial sarcoma is characterized by the t(X;18)(p11;q11), found in more than 95% of the tumors. This translocation results in rearrangements of the SYT gene in 18q11 and one of the SSX1, SSX2, or SSX4 genes in Xp11, creating a SYT/SSX1, SYT/SSX2, or SYT/SSX4 chimeric gene. It has been shown that patients with SYT/SSX1 fusion genes have a shorter metastasis-free survival than do patients with SYT/SSX2. Previous studies have also suggested that clonal evolution may be associated with disease progression. In the present study, RT-PCR analysis showed that all 64 examined synovial sarcomas from 54 patients had SYT-SSX chimeric genes. SYT/SSX1 was found in 40 tumors from 33 patients, SYT/SSX2 in 23 tumors from 20 patients, and SYT/SSX4 in one case. Two patients had variant SYT/SSX2 transcripts, with 57 bp and 141 bp inserts, respectively, between the known SYT and SSX2 sequences. Patients with tumors with SYT/SSX1 fusions had a higher risk of developing metastases compared to those with SYT/SSX2 fusions (P = 0.01). The reciprocal transcripts SSX1/SYT and SSX2/SYT were detected using nested PCR in 11 of the 40 samples with SYT/SSX1 and 5 of the 23 samples with SYT/SSX2, respectively. Among 20 blood samples, SYT/SSX1 and SYT/SSX2 were detected in one sample each. The t(X;18), or variants thereof, was found cytogenetically in all patients but three. Among 32 primary tumors, the t(X;18) or a variant translocation was the sole anomaly in 10. In contrast, of the seven metastatic lesions that were investigated prior to radiotherapy, only one had a t(X;18) as the sole anomaly; all other tumors displayed complex karyotypes. Cytogenetic complexity in primary tumors was, however, not associated with the development of metastases. Tumors with SYT/SSX2 less often (4/12 vs. 7/15) showed complex karyotypes than did tumors with SYT/SSX1, but the difference was not significant. Combining cytogenetic complexity and transcript data, we found that the subgroup of patients with tumors showing simple karyotypes and SYT/SSX2 fusion had the best clinical outcome (2/8 patients developed metastases), and those with tumors showing complex karyotypes together with SYT/SSX1 fusion the worst (6/7 patients developed metastases). This corresponded to 5-year metastasis-free survival rates of 0.58 and 0.0, respectively (P = 0.02).

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@article{922fb88b-c459-4011-8876-fd94a5170d0e,
  abstract     = {<p>Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive soft-tissue tumor that accounts for up to 10% of soft-tissue sarcomas. Cytogenetically, synovial sarcoma is characterized by the t(X;18)(p11;q11), found in more than 95% of the tumors. This translocation results in rearrangements of the SYT gene in 18q11 and one of the SSX1, SSX2, or SSX4 genes in Xp11, creating a SYT/SSX1, SYT/SSX2, or SYT/SSX4 chimeric gene. It has been shown that patients with SYT/SSX1 fusion genes have a shorter metastasis-free survival than do patients with SYT/SSX2. Previous studies have also suggested that clonal evolution may be associated with disease progression. In the present study, RT-PCR analysis showed that all 64 examined synovial sarcomas from 54 patients had SYT-SSX chimeric genes. SYT/SSX1 was found in 40 tumors from 33 patients, SYT/SSX2 in 23 tumors from 20 patients, and SYT/SSX4 in one case. Two patients had variant SYT/SSX2 transcripts, with 57 bp and 141 bp inserts, respectively, between the known SYT and SSX2 sequences. Patients with tumors with SYT/SSX1 fusions had a higher risk of developing metastases compared to those with SYT/SSX2 fusions (P = 0.01). The reciprocal transcripts SSX1/SYT and SSX2/SYT were detected using nested PCR in 11 of the 40 samples with SYT/SSX1 and 5 of the 23 samples with SYT/SSX2, respectively. Among 20 blood samples, SYT/SSX1 and SYT/SSX2 were detected in one sample each. The t(X;18), or variants thereof, was found cytogenetically in all patients but three. Among 32 primary tumors, the t(X;18) or a variant translocation was the sole anomaly in 10. In contrast, of the seven metastatic lesions that were investigated prior to radiotherapy, only one had a t(X;18) as the sole anomaly; all other tumors displayed complex karyotypes. Cytogenetic complexity in primary tumors was, however, not associated with the development of metastases. Tumors with SYT/SSX2 less often (4/12 vs. 7/15) showed complex karyotypes than did tumors with SYT/SSX1, but the difference was not significant. Combining cytogenetic complexity and transcript data, we found that the subgroup of patients with tumors showing simple karyotypes and SYT/SSX2 fusion had the best clinical outcome (2/8 patients developed metastases), and those with tumors showing complex karyotypes together with SYT/SSX1 fusion the worst (6/7 patients developed metastases). This corresponded to 5-year metastasis-free survival rates of 0.58 and 0.0, respectively (P = 0.02).</p>},
  author       = {Panagopoulos, I and Mertens, F and Isaksson, Margareth and Limon, J and Gustafson, Pelle and Skytting, B and Åkerman, Måns and Sciot, R and Dal Cin, P and Samson, I and Iliszko, M and Ryoe, J and Dêbiec-Rychter, M and Szadowska, A and Brosjö, O and Larsson, O and Rydholm, A and Mandahl, N},
  issn         = {1045-2257},
  keyword      = {Adolescent,Adult,Aged,Aged, 80 and over,Amino Acid Sequence,Base Sequence,Child,Female,Humans,Karyotyping,Male,Middle Aged,Molecular Sequence Data,Neoplasm Proteins,Oncogene Proteins, Fusion,Proteins,Proto-Oncogene Proteins,Repressor Proteins,Sarcoma, Synovial,Sequence Analysis, DNA,Soft Tissue Neoplasms,Journal Article,Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {72--362},
  publisher    = {John Wiley & Sons},
  series       = {Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer},
  title        = {Clinical impact of molecular and cytogenetic findings in synovial sarcoma},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.1155},
  volume       = {31},
  year         = {2001},
}