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Plasma levels of six carotenoids in nine European countries: report from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Al-Delaimy, WK; van Kappel, AL; Ferrari, P; Slimani, N; Steghens, JP; Bingham, S; Johansson, I; Wallström, Peter LU ; Overvad, K and Tjonneland, A, et al. (2004) In Public Health Nutrition 7(6). p.713-722
Abstract
Background: In addition to their possible direct biological effects, plasma carotenoids can be used as biochemical markers of fruit and vegetable consumption for identifying diet-disease associations in epidemiological studies. Few studies have compared levels of these carotenoids between countries in Europe. Objective: Our aim was to assess the variability of plasma carotenoid levels within the cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Plasma levels of six carotenoids-alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin-were measured cross-sectionally in 3043 study subjects from 16 regions in nine European countries. We investigated the relative influence of... (More)
Background: In addition to their possible direct biological effects, plasma carotenoids can be used as biochemical markers of fruit and vegetable consumption for identifying diet-disease associations in epidemiological studies. Few studies have compared levels of these carotenoids between countries in Europe. Objective: Our aim was to assess the variability of plasma carotenoid levels within the cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Plasma levels of six carotenoids-alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin-were measured cross-sectionally in 3043 study subjects from 16 regions in nine European countries. We investigated the relative influence of gender, season, age, body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake and smoking status on plasma levels of the carotenoids. Results: Mean plasma level of the sum of the six carotenoids varied twofold between regions (1.35 mumol l(-1) for men in Malmo, Sweden vs. 2.79 mumol l(-1) for men in Ragusa/Naples, Italy; 1.61 mumol l(-1) for women in The Netherlands vs. 3.52 mumol l(-1) in Ragusa/Naples, Italy). Mean levels of individual carotenoids varied up to fourfold (alpha-carotene: 0.06 mumol l(-1) for men in Murcia, Spain vs. 0.25 mumol l(-1) for vegetarian men living in the UK). In multivariate regression analyses, region was the most important predictor of total plasma carotenoid level (partial R-2=27.3%), followed by BMI (partial R-2=5.2%), gender (partial R-2=2.7%) and smoking status (partial R-2=2.8%). Females had higher total carotenoid levels than males across Europe. Conclusions: Plasma levels of carotenoids vary substantially between 16 different regions in Italy, Greece, Spain, France, Germany, the UK, Sweden, Denmark and The Netherlands. Compared with region of residence, the other demographic and lifestyle factors and laboratory measurements have limited predictive value for plasma carotenoid levels in Europe. (Less)
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Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
lutein, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, carotenoids, plasma, zeaxanthin, Europe
in
Public Health Nutrition
volume
7
issue
6
pages
713 - 722
publisher
Cambridge University Press
external identifiers
  • scopus:4344698938
  • wos:000223637000004
  • pmid:15369608
ISSN
1475-2727
DOI
10.1079/PHN2004598
language
English
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yes
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8b88eb20-e6b1-4751-b406-3e6c057932a2 (old id 1127093)
date added to LUP
2007-08-29 14:37:40
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2017-12-10 04:27:45
@article{8b88eb20-e6b1-4751-b406-3e6c057932a2,
  abstract     = {Background: In addition to their possible direct biological effects, plasma carotenoids can be used as biochemical markers of fruit and vegetable consumption for identifying diet-disease associations in epidemiological studies. Few studies have compared levels of these carotenoids between countries in Europe. Objective: Our aim was to assess the variability of plasma carotenoid levels within the cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Plasma levels of six carotenoids-alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin-were measured cross-sectionally in 3043 study subjects from 16 regions in nine European countries. We investigated the relative influence of gender, season, age, body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake and smoking status on plasma levels of the carotenoids. Results: Mean plasma level of the sum of the six carotenoids varied twofold between regions (1.35 mumol l(-1) for men in Malmo, Sweden vs. 2.79 mumol l(-1) for men in Ragusa/Naples, Italy; 1.61 mumol l(-1) for women in The Netherlands vs. 3.52 mumol l(-1) in Ragusa/Naples, Italy). Mean levels of individual carotenoids varied up to fourfold (alpha-carotene: 0.06 mumol l(-1) for men in Murcia, Spain vs. 0.25 mumol l(-1) for vegetarian men living in the UK). In multivariate regression analyses, region was the most important predictor of total plasma carotenoid level (partial R-2=27.3%), followed by BMI (partial R-2=5.2%), gender (partial R-2=2.7%) and smoking status (partial R-2=2.8%). Females had higher total carotenoid levels than males across Europe. Conclusions: Plasma levels of carotenoids vary substantially between 16 different regions in Italy, Greece, Spain, France, Germany, the UK, Sweden, Denmark and The Netherlands. Compared with region of residence, the other demographic and lifestyle factors and laboratory measurements have limited predictive value for plasma carotenoid levels in Europe.},
  author       = {Al-Delaimy, WK and van Kappel, AL and Ferrari, P and Slimani, N and Steghens, JP and Bingham, S and Johansson, I and Wallström, Peter and Overvad, K and Tjonneland, A and Key, TJ and Welch, AA and Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB and Peeters, PHM and Boeing, H and Linseisen, J and Clavel-Chapelon, F and Guibout, C and Navarro, C and Quiros, JR and Palli, D and Celentano, E and Trichopoulou, A and Benetou, V and Kaaks, R and Riboli, E},
  issn         = {1475-2727},
  keyword      = {lutein,lycopene,beta-cryptoxanthin,beta-carotene,alpha-carotene,carotenoids,plasma,zeaxanthin,Europe},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {713--722},
  publisher    = {Cambridge University Press},
  series       = {Public Health Nutrition},
  title        = {Plasma levels of six carotenoids in nine European countries: report from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PHN2004598},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {2004},
}