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Should snacks be recommended in obesity treatment? a 1-year randomized clinical trial

Berteus Forslund, H; Klingstrom, S; Hagberg, H; Löndahl, Magnus LU ; Torgerson, JS and Lindroos, AK (2007) In European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Abstract
Objective:To study the effect to recommend no snacks vs three snacks per day on 1-year weight loss. The hypothesis was that it is easier to control energy intake and lose weight if snacks in between meals are omitted.Subjects/Method:In total 140 patients (36 men, 104 women), aged 18-60 years and body mass index>30 kg/m(2) were randomized and 93 patients (27 men, 66 women) completed the study. A 1-year randomized intervention trial was conducted with two treatment arms with different eating frequencies; 3 meals/day (3M) or 3 meals and 3 snacks/day (3+3M). The patients received regular and individualized counseling by dieticians. Information on eating patterns, dietary intake, weight and metabolic variables was collected at baseline and... (More)
Objective:To study the effect to recommend no snacks vs three snacks per day on 1-year weight loss. The hypothesis was that it is easier to control energy intake and lose weight if snacks in between meals are omitted.Subjects/Method:In total 140 patients (36 men, 104 women), aged 18-60 years and body mass index>30 kg/m(2) were randomized and 93 patients (27 men, 66 women) completed the study. A 1-year randomized intervention trial was conducted with two treatment arms with different eating frequencies; 3 meals/day (3M) or 3 meals and 3 snacks/day (3+3M). The patients received regular and individualized counseling by dieticians. Information on eating patterns, dietary intake, weight and metabolic variables was collected at baseline and after 1 year.Results:Over 1 year the 3M group reported a decrease in the number of snacks whereas the 3+3M group reported an increase (-1.1 vs +0.4 snacks/day, respectively, P<0.0001). Both groups decreased energy intake and E% (energy percent) fat and increased E% protein and fiber intake but there was no differences between the groups. Both groups lost weight, but there was no significant difference in weight loss after 1 year of treatment (3M vs 3+3M=-4.1+/-6.1 vs -5.9+/-9.4 kg; P=0.31). Changes in metabolic variables did not differ between the groups, except for high-density lipoprotein that increased in the 3M group but not in 3+3M group (P<0.033 for group difference).Conclusion:Recommending snacks or not between meals does not influence 1-year weight loss.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 15 August 2007; doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602860. (Less)
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author
organization
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Contribution to journal
publication status
published
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in
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
publisher
Nature Publishing Group
external identifiers
  • pmid:17700649
  • scopus:56349139507
ISSN
1476-5640
DOI
10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602860
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
c0a01881-4ca7-4f68-9ee0-6698cf055c55 (old id 1142324)
date added to LUP
2008-08-07 12:06:21
date last changed
2017-09-17 07:00:38
@article{c0a01881-4ca7-4f68-9ee0-6698cf055c55,
  abstract     = {Objective:To study the effect to recommend no snacks vs three snacks per day on 1-year weight loss. The hypothesis was that it is easier to control energy intake and lose weight if snacks in between meals are omitted.Subjects/Method:In total 140 patients (36 men, 104 women), aged 18-60 years and body mass index&gt;30 kg/m(2) were randomized and 93 patients (27 men, 66 women) completed the study. A 1-year randomized intervention trial was conducted with two treatment arms with different eating frequencies; 3 meals/day (3M) or 3 meals and 3 snacks/day (3+3M). The patients received regular and individualized counseling by dieticians. Information on eating patterns, dietary intake, weight and metabolic variables was collected at baseline and after 1 year.Results:Over 1 year the 3M group reported a decrease in the number of snacks whereas the 3+3M group reported an increase (-1.1 vs +0.4 snacks/day, respectively, P&lt;0.0001). Both groups decreased energy intake and E% (energy percent) fat and increased E% protein and fiber intake but there was no differences between the groups. Both groups lost weight, but there was no significant difference in weight loss after 1 year of treatment (3M vs 3+3M=-4.1+/-6.1 vs -5.9+/-9.4 kg; P=0.31). Changes in metabolic variables did not differ between the groups, except for high-density lipoprotein that increased in the 3M group but not in 3+3M group (P&lt;0.033 for group difference).Conclusion:Recommending snacks or not between meals does not influence 1-year weight loss.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 15 August 2007; doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602860.},
  author       = {Berteus Forslund, H and Klingstrom, S and Hagberg, H and Löndahl, Magnus and Torgerson, JS and Lindroos, AK},
  issn         = {1476-5640},
  language     = {eng},
  publisher    = {Nature Publishing Group},
  series       = {European Journal of Clinical Nutrition},
  title        = {Should snacks be recommended in obesity treatment? a 1-year randomized clinical trial},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602860},
  year         = {2007},
}