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Yearly measurements of blood lead in Swedish children since 1978: The declining trend continues in the petrol-lead-free period 1995-2007.

Strömberg, Ulf LU ; Lundh, Thomas LU and Skerfving, Staffan LU (2008) In Environmental Research 107. p.332-335
Abstract
BACKGROUND: We have measured blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) in Swedish children, yearly since 1978. As reported previously, a substantial decrease of B-Pb was found for the period 1978-1994 (2440 children measured), as an effect of gradual reduction of lead in petrol. In another report focusing on the petrol-lead-free period 1995-2001, we noted that B-Pb seemed to stabilize at an average level close to 20mug/L. OBJECTIVE: We here analyze data from the extended petrol-lead-free period 1995-2007. METHODS: B-Pb was measured in 1268 children, aged 7-11 years, from the municipalities of Landskrona and Trelleborg in southern Sweden, yielding 1407 measurements on B-Pb (since 139 children were measured in two different calendar years). RESULTS:... (More)
BACKGROUND: We have measured blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) in Swedish children, yearly since 1978. As reported previously, a substantial decrease of B-Pb was found for the period 1978-1994 (2440 children measured), as an effect of gradual reduction of lead in petrol. In another report focusing on the petrol-lead-free period 1995-2001, we noted that B-Pb seemed to stabilize at an average level close to 20mug/L. OBJECTIVE: We here analyze data from the extended petrol-lead-free period 1995-2007. METHODS: B-Pb was measured in 1268 children, aged 7-11 years, from the municipalities of Landskrona and Trelleborg in southern Sweden, yielding 1407 measurements on B-Pb (since 139 children were measured in two different calendar years). RESULTS: We observed statistically significant decreases of the average concentrations during the recent years. The average B-Pb reduction rate was close to 5%/yr in the petrol-lead-free period 1995-2007; a similar reduction rate was estimated for the period with gradual reduction of lead in petrol, 1978-1994. The most recent geometric mean of B-Pb was 13.1 (range, 6.9-29.1)mug/L in Trelleborg (sample year 2005) and 13.2 (5.7-58.5)mug/L in Landskrona (2007). A declining B-Pb time trend was observed during the recent years among children who lived in near smelter, urban, and rural residential areas, respectively. B-Pb was influenced by the variables sex (boys had higher B-Pb), parents' smoking habits (children with one or both parents smoking had higher B-Pb), and potentially lead-exposing hobbies (for example, shooting air guns). CONCLUSION: Children's B-Pb levels can continue to decline markedly more than a decade after lead in petrol has been phased out in a country. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Environmental Research
volume
107
pages
332 - 335
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • wos:000256961000006
  • pmid:18466895
  • scopus:44649158877
ISSN
1096-0953
DOI
10.1016/j.envres.2008.03.007
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
aaf92f81-909e-4a43-928c-e4671a37b8ed (old id 1154363)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18466895?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2008-06-03 10:57:42
date last changed
2017-07-02 04:32:18
@article{aaf92f81-909e-4a43-928c-e4671a37b8ed,
  abstract     = {BACKGROUND: We have measured blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) in Swedish children, yearly since 1978. As reported previously, a substantial decrease of B-Pb was found for the period 1978-1994 (2440 children measured), as an effect of gradual reduction of lead in petrol. In another report focusing on the petrol-lead-free period 1995-2001, we noted that B-Pb seemed to stabilize at an average level close to 20mug/L. OBJECTIVE: We here analyze data from the extended petrol-lead-free period 1995-2007. METHODS: B-Pb was measured in 1268 children, aged 7-11 years, from the municipalities of Landskrona and Trelleborg in southern Sweden, yielding 1407 measurements on B-Pb (since 139 children were measured in two different calendar years). RESULTS: We observed statistically significant decreases of the average concentrations during the recent years. The average B-Pb reduction rate was close to 5%/yr in the petrol-lead-free period 1995-2007; a similar reduction rate was estimated for the period with gradual reduction of lead in petrol, 1978-1994. The most recent geometric mean of B-Pb was 13.1 (range, 6.9-29.1)mug/L in Trelleborg (sample year 2005) and 13.2 (5.7-58.5)mug/L in Landskrona (2007). A declining B-Pb time trend was observed during the recent years among children who lived in near smelter, urban, and rural residential areas, respectively. B-Pb was influenced by the variables sex (boys had higher B-Pb), parents' smoking habits (children with one or both parents smoking had higher B-Pb), and potentially lead-exposing hobbies (for example, shooting air guns). CONCLUSION: Children's B-Pb levels can continue to decline markedly more than a decade after lead in petrol has been phased out in a country.},
  author       = {Strömberg, Ulf and Lundh, Thomas and Skerfving, Staffan},
  issn         = {1096-0953},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {332--335},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Environmental Research},
  title        = {Yearly measurements of blood lead in Swedish children since 1978: The declining trend continues in the petrol-lead-free period 1995-2007.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2008.03.007},
  volume       = {107},
  year         = {2008},
}