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Tonsillar ectopia in idiopathic scoliosis: does it play a role in the pathogenesis and prognosis or is it only an incidental finding?

Abul-Kasim, Kasim LU ; Overgaard, Angelica LU ; Karlsson, Magnus LU and Ohlin, Acke LU (2009) In Scoliosis 4(Nov 12).
Abstract
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing controversy about the significance of tonsillar ectopia among patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS). AIM: To find out if tonsillar ectopia occurs more frequently among patients with IS and if it plays any etiological or prognostic role in IS. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 155 consecutive spine MRIs (79 patients with IS and 76 controls; aged 7-25 years; 55% were female) with regard to the position of the cerebellar tonsils in relation to foramen magnum and the sagittal diameter of foramen magnum. All images were evaluated independently by two neuroradiologists. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability analysis was performed by calculation of kappa-value,... (More)
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing controversy about the significance of tonsillar ectopia among patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS). AIM: To find out if tonsillar ectopia occurs more frequently among patients with IS and if it plays any etiological or prognostic role in IS. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 155 consecutive spine MRIs (79 patients with IS and 76 controls; aged 7-25 years; 55% were female) with regard to the position of the cerebellar tonsils in relation to foramen magnum and the sagittal diameter of foramen magnum. All images were evaluated independently by two neuroradiologists. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability analysis was performed by calculation of kappa-value, intraclass correlation coefficient, and systematic and random errors. The occurrence of tonsillar ectopia among patients with IS and controls was estimated and the association of tonsillar ectopia with different predictors has been tested. Statistical significance was set to P </= 0.05. RESULTS: The interobserver and intraobserver agreement with regard to the occurrence of tonsillar ectopia was almost perfect (kappa 0.84 and 0.89, respectively). Tonsillar ectopia was found in 37% of patients with IS compared with 13% among controls (p < 0.001 and odds ratio of 3.8, 95% CI 1.7-8.5). The occurrence of tonsillar ectopia was not associated with the severity of scoliotic deformity (p = 0.85), or rapid progression of scoliosis (p = 0.76). Neurological deficit occurs twice as frequently in patients with tonsillar ectopia as in those with no tonsillar ectopia. Two of five patients with tonsillar ectopia showed improvement of their neurological deficit after the surgical correction of scoliosis. CONCLUSION: As tonsillar ectopia is significantly more frequent among patients with IS and may exhibit some prognostic utility in patients with neurological deficit, we forward the hypothesis that tonsillar ectopia may play a role in the development of the deformity in some patients with IS. However, occurrence of tonsillar ectopia among 13% of controls precludes stating a definitive role of tonsillar ectopia in the pathogenesis of IS. Some patients with IS, tonsillar ectopia and neurological deficit showed neurological improvement following the surgical correction of scoliosis. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Scoliosis
volume
4
issue
Nov 12
publisher
BioMed Central
external identifiers
  • PMID:19909551
  • Scopus:71049126197
ISSN
1748-7161
DOI
10.1186/1748-7161-4-25
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
3c590466-1dea-49c6-9e50-9fc6d6539c0d (old id 1511983)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19909551?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2009-12-01 15:37:29
date last changed
2017-01-01 07:49:43
@article{3c590466-1dea-49c6-9e50-9fc6d6539c0d,
  abstract     = {ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing controversy about the significance of tonsillar ectopia among patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS). AIM: To find out if tonsillar ectopia occurs more frequently among patients with IS and if it plays any etiological or prognostic role in IS. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 155 consecutive spine MRIs (79 patients with IS and 76 controls; aged 7-25 years; 55% were female) with regard to the position of the cerebellar tonsils in relation to foramen magnum and the sagittal diameter of foramen magnum. All images were evaluated independently by two neuroradiologists. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability analysis was performed by calculation of kappa-value, intraclass correlation coefficient, and systematic and random errors. The occurrence of tonsillar ectopia among patients with IS and controls was estimated and the association of tonsillar ectopia with different predictors has been tested. Statistical significance was set to P &lt;/= 0.05. RESULTS: The interobserver and intraobserver agreement with regard to the occurrence of tonsillar ectopia was almost perfect (kappa 0.84 and 0.89, respectively). Tonsillar ectopia was found in 37% of patients with IS compared with 13% among controls (p &lt; 0.001 and odds ratio of 3.8, 95% CI 1.7-8.5). The occurrence of tonsillar ectopia was not associated with the severity of scoliotic deformity (p = 0.85), or rapid progression of scoliosis (p = 0.76). Neurological deficit occurs twice as frequently in patients with tonsillar ectopia as in those with no tonsillar ectopia. Two of five patients with tonsillar ectopia showed improvement of their neurological deficit after the surgical correction of scoliosis. CONCLUSION: As tonsillar ectopia is significantly more frequent among patients with IS and may exhibit some prognostic utility in patients with neurological deficit, we forward the hypothesis that tonsillar ectopia may play a role in the development of the deformity in some patients with IS. However, occurrence of tonsillar ectopia among 13% of controls precludes stating a definitive role of tonsillar ectopia in the pathogenesis of IS. Some patients with IS, tonsillar ectopia and neurological deficit showed neurological improvement following the surgical correction of scoliosis.},
  articleno    = {25},
  author       = {Abul-Kasim, Kasim and Overgaard, Angelica and Karlsson, Magnus and Ohlin, Acke},
  issn         = {1748-7161},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {Nov 12},
  publisher    = {BioMed Central},
  series       = {Scoliosis},
  title        = {Tonsillar ectopia in idiopathic scoliosis: does it play a role in the pathogenesis and prognosis or is it only an incidental finding?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1748-7161-4-25},
  volume       = {4},
  year         = {2009},
}