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Interleukin-6 Is Elevated in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Suicide Attempters and Related to Symptom Severity.

Lindqvist, Daniel LU ; Janelidze, Shorena LU ; Hagell, Peter LU ; Erhardt, Sophie; Samuelsson, Martin LU ; Minthon, Lennart LU ; Hansson, Oskar LU ; Björkqvist, Maria LU ; Träskman Bendz, Lil LU and Brundin, Lena LU (2009) In Biological Psychiatry 66. p.287-292
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are associated with immune system alterations that can be detected in the blood. Cytokine concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and their relationship to aspects of suicidality have previously not been investigated. METHODS: We measured interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in CSF and plasma of suicide attempters (n = 63) and healthy control subjects (n = 47). Patients were classified according to diagnosis and violent or nonviolent suicide attempt. We evaluated suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms using the Suicide Assessment Scale and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). We also analyzed the relation between... (More)
BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are associated with immune system alterations that can be detected in the blood. Cytokine concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and their relationship to aspects of suicidality have previously not been investigated. METHODS: We measured interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in CSF and plasma of suicide attempters (n = 63) and healthy control subjects (n = 47). Patients were classified according to diagnosis and violent or nonviolent suicide attempt. We evaluated suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms using the Suicide Assessment Scale and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). We also analyzed the relation between cytokines and monoamine metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in CSF, as well as the integrity of the blood-brain barrier as reflected by the CSF:serum albumin ratio. RESULTS: IL-6 in CSF was significantly higher in suicide attempters than in healthy control subjects. Patients who performed violent suicide attempts displayed the highest IL-6. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between MADRS scores and CSF IL-6 levels in all patients. IL-6 and TNF-alpha correlated significantly with 5-HIAA and HVA in CSF, but not with MHPG. Cytokine levels in plasma and CSF were not associated, and patients with increased blood-brain barrier permeability did not exhibit elevated cytokine levels. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a role for CSF IL-6 in the symptomatology of suicidal behavior, possibly through mechanisms involving alterations of dopamine and serotonin metabolism. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Biological Psychiatry
volume
66
pages
287 - 292
publisher
Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Elsevier Inc.
external identifiers
  • wos:000267961600014
  • pmid:19268915
  • scopus:67649406060
ISSN
0006-3223
DOI
10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.01.030
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
15c79755-07ca-4421-aef7-dd02494ce206 (old id 1367964)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19268915?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2009-04-06 14:25:30
date last changed
2017-11-12 04:07:31
@article{15c79755-07ca-4421-aef7-dd02494ce206,
  abstract     = {BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are associated with immune system alterations that can be detected in the blood. Cytokine concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and their relationship to aspects of suicidality have previously not been investigated. METHODS: We measured interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in CSF and plasma of suicide attempters (n = 63) and healthy control subjects (n = 47). Patients were classified according to diagnosis and violent or nonviolent suicide attempt. We evaluated suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms using the Suicide Assessment Scale and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). We also analyzed the relation between cytokines and monoamine metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in CSF, as well as the integrity of the blood-brain barrier as reflected by the CSF:serum albumin ratio. RESULTS: IL-6 in CSF was significantly higher in suicide attempters than in healthy control subjects. Patients who performed violent suicide attempts displayed the highest IL-6. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between MADRS scores and CSF IL-6 levels in all patients. IL-6 and TNF-alpha correlated significantly with 5-HIAA and HVA in CSF, but not with MHPG. Cytokine levels in plasma and CSF were not associated, and patients with increased blood-brain barrier permeability did not exhibit elevated cytokine levels. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a role for CSF IL-6 in the symptomatology of suicidal behavior, possibly through mechanisms involving alterations of dopamine and serotonin metabolism.},
  author       = {Lindqvist, Daniel and Janelidze, Shorena and Hagell, Peter and Erhardt, Sophie and Samuelsson, Martin and Minthon, Lennart and Hansson, Oskar and Björkqvist, Maria and Träskman Bendz, Lil and Brundin, Lena},
  issn         = {0006-3223},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {287--292},
  publisher    = {Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Elsevier Inc.},
  series       = {Biological Psychiatry},
  title        = {Interleukin-6 Is Elevated in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Suicide Attempters and Related to Symptom Severity.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.01.030},
  volume       = {66},
  year         = {2009},
}